...and could elicit a comment or a paper from Dr. Arp himself.
Dark Energy and the Hubble Constant
Dark energy is inferred from a Hubble expansion which is slower at epochs which are earlier than ours. But evidence reviewed here shows H0 for nearby galaxies is actually less than currently adopted and would instead require deceleration to reach the current value...The same considerations apply to Dark Matter. But with particle masses
growing with time, the condensation from plasmoid to proto galaxy not only does away with the need for unseen “dark matter” but also explains the intrinsic (non-velocity) redshifts of younger matter.
So it is simple: jets of matter shooting out from a galaxy cause a shock wave in the plasma surrounding the galaxy. The higher density of plasma in this shock wave causes a higher plasma induced redshift for the mass at the head of the shockwave. That is why the quasar appears redshifted compared to the galaxy. The reason redshifts are quantized is simply because shockwaves are quantized. Just as the plasma can't be compressed beyond a certain point, the plasma density induced redshift can not increase beyond this point.
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