Earth - atmosphere

Historic planetary instability and catastrophe. Evidence for electrical scarring on planets and moons. Electrical events in today's solar system. Electric Earth.

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Earth - atmosphere

Unread postby junglelord » Tue May 13, 2008 6:38 am

Some links to the fair weather current of the earth.

Fair-weather atmospheric electricity
http://www.ava.fmi.fi/~tjt/fairw.html

Soaking in atmospheric electricity
'Fair weather' measurements important
to understanding thunderstorms
http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlin ... un99_1.htm

Atmospheric electricity
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_electricity

The Global Circuit
http://globalcircuit.phys.uh.edu/

Atmospheric Electricity HomePage
http://ae.nsstc.uah.edu/
Last edited by nick c on Mon Mar 28, 2011 10:05 am, edited 1 time in total.
Reason: thread title changed/merged posts
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Re: Fair Weather Current

Unread postby webolife » Tue May 13, 2008 11:17 am

Their premise for atmospheric charge return to earth's surface... does this agree, contradict or otherwise conflict with EU claims for ET, ie. solar/cosmic origins of thunderstorm and lightning production on earth?
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Re: Fair Weather Current

Unread postby MGmirkin » Tue May 13, 2008 11:59 am

junglelord wrote:Some links to the fair weather current of the earth.

Fair-weather atmospheric electricity
http://www.ava.fmi.fi/~tjt/fairw.html

Soaking in atmospheric electricity
'Fair weather' measurements important
to understanding thunderstorms
http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlin ... un99_1.htm

Atmospheric electricity
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_electricity

The Global Circuit
http://globalcircuit.phys.uh.edu/

Atmospheric Electricity HomePage
http://ae.nsstc.uah.edu/


Gee, that looks familiar... Retrieve a few links from the old forum? :) I recall a few of those pages from various threads thereabouts when I went web dumpster-diving... Hehe. I hope I saved those threads in my archive (yeah, still working on it; the last bit [getting links working again] is a long hard slog). Will try to get the archive working as soon as I've got some time and am not sick (I'm tired of everyone passing me their colds this year!)...

Anyway, good stuff!

Most of the "circuit diagrams" I've seen tend to intimate a "closed circuit" with Earth "somehow" generating all the charge separation necessary for the cycle to continue. They don't tend to show any input from without. But the recent THEMIS press releases seem to indicate the opposite. Earth is a slightly open system, insofar as it's on the receiving end of the solar circuit and gets direct solar electrical input.

You can see their stance here:

(Fair-weather atmospheric electricity)
http://www.ava.fmi.fi/~tjt/fairw.html

Atmospheric electricity involves phenomena which are connected with the separation of electric charges in the sub-ionospheric atmosphere (below about 100 km height).

[...]

Charge separation takes place in three ways:

thermodynamically, by radiation ionization, by collision ionization


They do make the passing remark "In the ionosphere and magnetosphere there occur strong electric currents originating directly from the solar-terrestrial interaction" but fail to follow up on what they mean by the solar-terrestrial interaction. One might suppose they mean only radiation ionization, or collision ionization (or photoionization?), as opposed to direct electrical input? Hard to say.

But, as they say, the truth will out.

(NASA Spacecraft Make New Discoveries About Northern Lights)
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/themi ... ights.html
http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/themi ... multi.html
http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/2037 ... er_400.jpg

(Spring is Aurora Season)
http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2008 ... spring.htm

It appears we're directly linked to the solar circuit via the "flux ropes" (a handy turn of phrase to avoid saying Birkeland current or acknowledging its electrical nature; dynamic magnetic fields are dependent on electric currents according to electromagnetic field theory.)

Wikipedia wrote:The electromagnetic field is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects. It affects the behaviour of charged objects in the vicinity of the field.

[...]

The field can be viewed as the combination of an electric field and a magnetic field. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges (currents); these two are often described as the sources of the field. The way in which charges and currents interact with the electromagnetic field is described by Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force law.


Where we see the magnetic fields, we HAVE TO consider the electric currents / circuits that produce them. No way around it, according to Maxwell at least...

The full extent of the Birkeland currents' effects on Earth's circuits, electric and magnetic fields, climate, etc. may well still need to be more fully assessed?

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The Condign Report and Terrestrial / Atmospheric Plama

Unread postby MGmirkin » Thu May 29, 2008 11:00 am

I'd like to discuss the Condign Report, insofar as it has been noted that it discusses the possibility of some UAP (Unidentified Aerial Phenomena; the more neutral British designation for what we'd call UFOs [Unidentified Flying Objects]) as being plasma phenomena.

I realize the topic of UFOlogy is quite controversial, so I'll say up front that if this thread goes off topic, it should be moved to the NIAMI (New Insights and Mad Ideas) section of the forum. That said, I'd prefer to lay some ground rules for relative neutrality. My preference is for relatively "mainstream" sites / articles. IE, they should pass the 'stink test,' insofar as there should be some kind of journalistic integrity. Or, alternately, peer-reviewed materials would be equally acceptable. My hope is to avoid some of the more "non-mainstream" or "fringe" sites and just discuss things as presented in the mainstream sources (which should hopefully deal with the less-controversial primary sources as opposed to being more "speculative" [one would hope]).

I'll start off with a few relatively neutral sources:

(TinWiki - Condign Report)
http://tinwiki.org/wiki/Condign_Report

(Source documents: UAP in the UK Air Defence Region)
http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/Freed ... Region.htm

(UFO study finds no sign of aliens)
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4981720.stm

(Unidentified Atmospheric Phenomena - Seeing the light)
http://www.forteantimes.com/features/ar ... omena.html

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Re: The Condign Report

Unread postby StefanR » Thu May 29, 2008 11:27 am

Would love to discuss it in a proper way. But I do not wish to be flamed and my post being removed again, like a while ago posting something with 'some kind of journalistic integrity'. So I'm very hesitant to come forth.
But maybe you wish to discuss only the electromagnetic part of the phenomenon?
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Re: The Condign Report

Unread postby Faderbaby » Thu May 29, 2008 1:18 pm

I've sort of been the "plasma guy" on one or two "UFO" forums and most of these ideas (of the MoD) are NOT popular among "UFOlogists", who have been indoctrinated into a dogma which most definitely does NOT include plasma. Here, in the MoD documents, are several areas that probably meet the criteria in the above post. I've read most of the report and taken note of some interesting items. These are:

Conditions for formation of bouyant charged plasmas is currently unknown (Exec. Summary pg 11)

They may relate to dust conditions, including volcanos and whatever creates aerosol naturally.

From Vol 1 pg. 14-34 (Main Report/Overview)
A ‘total absorption’ optical phenomenon may exist between charged buoyant bodies (plasmas) that creates the appearance of a single (often triangular) object. This is also mentioned in the following Working Papers: WP 2,13,18,19,20,23,24.

(Working Paper 19)
The streamlined shaping of atmospheric plasmas is mentioned as accounting for the classic "flying saucer" shape and is due to aerodynamic drag once the object is in motion. As the aerosol cloud moves, the surface particles are removed by the air stream.

WP 19 looks into the formation of dusty plasmas. There are two types of dusty plasmas: ‘dusty dense’ & ‘suspended dust’. Both types are UAP-associated. The concept that these are subject to laws of drag and momentum is considered. This study (WP 19) strengthens the idea that atmosphere-born particles (like dust) must be present to create these plasmas (volcanos and earthquakes, possibly sparked by something else, such as lightning).

The "searchlight beams" of reported UAP are thought to be an electrical discharge. If the discharge is to a conductor (earth's surface or airplane), the object may re-orient and move along with the conductor.

Plasmas at atmospheric pressure can absorb or reflect electromagnetic waves depending on density, angle of incidence and duration (life span). Plasmas can therefore (in the near field) affect antenna performance and disrupt radio signals. (And car engines, etc.).

In a referenced Canadian study (University of Ontario medical experiments), human beings subjected to specific electromagnetic fields and frequencies experienced the following psychological/cognitive aberrations: lost time, alien abduction, experience of specific colors and tastes and smells. This was an unexpected result of the study. I'll try to locate more details, which are abbreviated in Volume 3, Ch. 4, pg. 3.

These are some interesting tidbits. The Condign Report is written in the language of science. Not being a scientist, I summarize it as I understand it. I've tried to index the document to make specific topics easier to find (but the PDFs are not searchable - to me, anyway). I can try to find more specifics on anything of particular interest.
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Re: The Condign Report

Unread postby MGmirkin » Thu May 29, 2008 4:02 pm

I'd be interested to know if they pegged any specific plasma types / processes as relating to specific concrete things seen by observers? Or is it all just wild speculation "well, maybe, it could be, but..." Just wondering. Or are they simply suggesting a line of investigation, as opposed to proposing specific physical answers?

Haven't read through any of the report(s) yet. But the plasma bits to rather interest me, if/where they can be tied to something concrete (both in terms of specific sightings / image and/or specific definitive processes [ball lightning, plasmoid, etc.]).

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Re: The Condign Report

Unread postby Faderbaby » Thu May 29, 2008 5:06 pm

No, it's exactly what you're asking for - correlated data in hundreds of charts and graphs along with conclusions and recommendations. Every possible factor seems to have been correlated in every imaginable way (to me). Locations, frequencies, wavelengths, field strengths and on and on. Yet, the entire study got about the level of excitement in the mainstream media as does EU theory - virtually none. I'll try to gather links to some specific PDFs and page numbers that are representative and post the links tomorrow (with a tagline of what each is). Then you can go directly to whatever you feel is the most interesting to the group and take this thread in any number of directions.
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Re: The Condign Report

Unread postby Faderbaby » Thu May 29, 2008 7:08 pm

The 'Condign Report' is comprised of an Executive Summary and 3 Volumes. Since 'Executive Summary' is self-explanatory, I will try to give an index as to the other volumes. What you will download here http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/Freed ... olume1.htm are a bunch of PDF files. Here's what's in these PDF files:

CONTENTS OF VOLUME ONE:

uap_vol1_1a3.pdf
This PDF is a scatter plot map from 1987 - 1991 also showing air corridors under control of London ATC.

uap_vol1_annex_atod.pdf
This PDF summarizes the Tables 1 - 13 (the form used to create a database used for a
significant portion of this study) as follows:
Table 1 & 2: Base Table & Proximity Log
Table 3: Observer Description
Table 4: Physical Description
Table 5: Object Motion
Table 6A: Odours
Table 6B: Technical Effects
Table 7A: Meteorological Conditions
Table 7B Observer Location
Table 7C: Viewing Background
Table 8: Optical & Radiation
Table 9: Observer Geometry
Table 10: Final Description
Table 12: Event Categorisation Log
Table 13: Imagery & Audio Log
(Table 11 was allocated but not required)

uap_vol1_annex_dtof.pdf
Shows the base data sheets on 20 pages (the form for reporting UAP incidents following the above structure of 13 Tables).

uap_vol1_pgs1to13_ch1.pdf
Preface.
The Main Report Index:
Historical Background. Analysis Methodology. Statistical Analysis of the UAP Database. Potential Related Military Technology. Summary of Study Findings.
Index to Volume 2 - Working Papers (I will list these in Volume Two) There are 25 WPs.
Index to volume 3 - Misc. Studies. Radar Detection. Potential hazards to aircraft.Potential for exploitation of UAP associated effects. UAP work in other countries.
Annex A - Generation Of Plasma Formations (END OF INDEX)

Chapter 1 Historical Study Background

uap_vol1_pgs14to34_ch2
Chapter 2 Analysis Methodology. Charts on relationship of colours and shapes to unidentified objects.

uap_vol1_pgs35to55_ch3a.pdf
Chapter 2: Statistical Analysis of the UAP Database. A summary of the findings. How many occurred in what month, time of day, etc. An overview of statistical distribution values (but not the charts themselves).

uap_vol1_pgs56to71_ch3b.pdf
This is a continuation of Chapter 2, summarizing by category, the database. Beginning on page 11 we see charts broken down by: time of day; per year; plots of a UAP assessed tracks (interesting);frequency of repeat sightings

uap_vol1_pgs72to86_ch3b.pdf
Continuation of charts. Analysis of UAP colours; light activity; analysis of UAP shapes; UAP motion;... various correlations between more than one factor, for example, light AND shape, etc.

uap_vol1_pgs87to99_ch4to5.pdf
Chapter 4 Potential Related Military Technology. Begins a discussion bouyant charged bodies. Plasma. Foo fighters.UAP Plasma is introduced on page 5. Introduces medical effects from the Canadian study (easing into this with disclaimers that the exact conditions cannot be directly correlated to UAP, as UAP do not occur in laboratories).

Chapter 5 Summary of Study Findings
"...There is strong evidence to suggest that the remaining UAP events are most likely due to highly charged plasma entities which can take more than one form and are apparently formed from more than one cause."

END OF VOLUME ONE
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Re: The Condign Report

Unread postby Faderbaby » Thu May 29, 2008 10:06 pm

Download Volume Two here: http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/Freed ... olume2.htm

CONTENTS OF VOLUME TWO (The Working Papers)

uap_vol2_pgs1to15.pdf
"Information on Associated Natural & Man-Made Phenomenon"
The Working Papers are introduced as a reference source to aid in interpretation and identification of UAP reports.

Table Of Contents (list of Working Papers that I will list as they appear in the individual PDF files).

Working Paper 1: UAP Effects On Humans, Electric/Electrical Equipment & Objects
Sensing the presence of a UAP in animals. Electro-magnetic field levels. Magnetic field effects.
Annexes:
A Sound
B Odours
C Taste
D EM Effects on Equipment
E Direct Thermal Effects
F Non-Ionising EM Effects on Humans

uap_vol2_pgs16to30.pdf
Annex F is completed, including many charts relating to the effect on humans.

Working Paper 2 (page 11): Ball and Bead Lightning
Detailed and technical discussion of ball and bead lightning.

uap_vol2pgs31to45.pdf
continuation of WP 2.
Plasmoids. Shapes, temperatures, optical 'thicknesses',thermochemical refridgeration, etc.

Working Paper 3 (page 11): Potential Reasons For Higher Densities of UAP Sightings
Populations density, weather/visibility, time of year, etc.

uap_vol2_pgs46to60.pdf
charts of population densities

Working Paper 4 (page 6): After-Images As A Result of Flashes of Light
Brief look at "blindness" at night after a flash of light

Working Paper 5 (page 10): Detection of UAPs by Radar
Radar reflections from plasma (much of this paper is redacted)
Plasma is discussed on page 12 (with mathematical formulas regarding mass, charge, and absorption). Dusty plasmas on page 13.
Overall, radar detection of plasma UAPs is highly variable.

uap_vol2_pgs61to75.pdf
Detectability of plasma targets (continuation of WP 5).

Working Paper 6 (page 3): Exotic Technologies
Exotic solutions to UAPs. Anti-matter. National capabilities (U.S.,U.K., former USSR, etc), exotic propulsion, torsion fields.

Working Paper 7 (page 12): Sightline Rates of Flying Objects & Meteorites
Brief mention of plasmas on page 15

uap_vol2_pgs76to90.pdf
Working Paper 8 (page 4): Rarity of UAP Sound Reports

Working Paper 9 (page 7): 'Black' And Other Aircraft As UAP Events
(much redacted content, but some good charts and photos)

uap_vol2_pgs91to105.pdf
Charts and maps of helicopter routes, flight paths, low-flying areas such as hang-gliding sites.

uap_vol2_pgs106to120.pdf
continuation of these charts.

Working Paper 10: Ley Lines, Earthlights And U.K. Earth Fault Lines
First few pages only

uap_vol2_pgs121to135.pdf
Main body of WP 10.
some illustative photos beginning on page 7. Maps of fault lines and earthlight locations.

uap_vol2_pgs136to150.pdf
continuation of charts

Working Paper 11
(page 3): Collected Imagery and Classification of UAP Shapes
Classes: spheres, discs, cigar, star/point, oval, triangle/pyramid, rectangle/diamond, boomerang/arc
Photos of the various types.

uap_vol2_pgs151to162
Photos of UAP. Due to PDF limitations, they look so-so. Not suitable for framing.

uap_vol2_ptb_pgs1to15.pdf
Working Paper 12 (page 10): Earth's Magnetic Field In The UKADR
Field intensity, angles, and local variations; comparison with medical experiments. Charts.

Working Paper 13 (page 14): Visual Meteorological And Other Natural Atmospheric Phenomenon
Lenticular clouds, dust devils, coronas, halos & arcs, sun dogs, St. Elmo's Fire, sun pillars...

uap_vol2_ptb_pgs16to30.pdf
Main body of WP 13 followed by photos (and even maps of bird concentration areas).

Working Paper 14 (page 15): Meteorological Balloons

uap_vol2_ptb_pgs31to45.pdf
Start of WP 14. Ballon types and maps of launch sites.

Working Paper 15 (page 3): Airships, Hot Air & Tethered Balloons

Working Paper 16 (page 7): Sunspot, Aurora And Seismic Correlation
Also correlation of UAP events with seismic activity

Working Paper 17 (page 15): Visual Observation Of Satellites

uap_vol2_ptb_pgs46to60.pdf
Start of WP 17. Nice charts of satellite angles.

Working Paper 18 (page 11): Projected Shapes/Shadows,Flourescence, Luminescence & Sonoluminescence
Gas absorption, aerosol flourescence, scattering intensity, pollution

uap_vol2_ptb_pgs61to75.pdf
Working Paper 19: Charged Dust Aerosols Plasmas - Dusty Plasmas & Atmospheric Plasmas As Reflectors & Absorbers
A screenwriter would call this Working Paper the "setup" for the big ending in Act III of the film. Likely of interest to this group.

Working Paper 20 (page 8): Optical Mirages

Working Paper 21 (page 11): Ionospheric Plasma
Formation, power, motion and radar echoes.

Working Paper 22 (page 15): Artefacts

uap_vol2_ptb_pgs76to96.pdf
Working Paper 23 (page 2): Linked Vortex Rings
Experimental vortices and the Challenge spacecraft video.

Working Paper 24 (page 7): 'Sprites', 'Elves' and 'Blue Jets' (Atmospheric And Ionospheric Phenomenon)

Working Paper 25 (page 11): Overview Of Magnetic Field Effects On Humans
Temporal lobe activity and magnetic flux levels. Mention of fields investigated in Canada during medical experiments which produced reports of 'aliens' and 'close encounters' (apparently, to their surprise).
Specific frequencies and power levels are shown to affect temporal lobe experiences such as 'out of body', time loss and other mystical sensations. It got weird, in other words.

END OF VOLUME TWO
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Re: The Condign Report

Unread postby StefanR » Fri May 30, 2008 2:53 am

The plasma-UFO Theory

The Condign Report was the subject of widespread media coverage (particularly in Britain) after the press was made aware of the report.

Most media coverage focused upon the suggestion in the report that UFO reports may be caused by atmospheric-electrical plasmas of some type similar to ball lightning.

Previous authors (including Philip J Klass) have advanced the theory that UFO reports may be caused by plasmas similar to ball lightning caused by atmospheric conditions. The material relating to statistical analysis in the Condign Report, however, concludes that meteors are the most significant cause of plasmas that result in UAP reports.

The report refers to the large quantity of matter entering the earth’s atmosphere which “in theory is said to burn up”. The report states that certain issues arise “if it is postulated that” not all this material burns up or impacts the surface. (The report acknowledges that there is “a dearth of information in the scientific press on this possibility”).

The report suggests that the postulated further material turns into “meteor plasmas”. The report notes a finding that “peak reporting periods co-incided with meteor show peaks”, and contends that the reports did not involve sightings of “falling meteors” but were in fact sightings of “meteor plasmas”. The report concludes that these sightings “were clearly events which occurred after the plasmas had been formed, were usually at low altitude and exhibited the regularly-seen erratic, bobbing, hovering and climbing motion which would not [sic] be mistaken by the public and other credible witnesses” [Volume 1, Chapter 3, paras 53-65 (particularly at paras 54-55 and 65)]

from the (TinWiki - Condign Report) link.


Goodday Faderbaby, as you said you read the whole report, is this a fair description on this Tinwiki-site?
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Re: The Condign Report

Unread postby Faderbaby » Fri May 30, 2008 8:34 am

That's an accurate summary of the middle of Chapter 3 (uap_vol1_pgs56to71_ch3b.pdf) and is a highlight of the Executive Summary. The mysterious author of The Condign Report considers numerous causes for atmopheric plasmas, including meteors, volcanos and tectonic activity (along with dust and human pollution as a source of particles for the creation of dusty plasmas). Meteors are the most directly-correlated to the database. Probably this group is interested in the conclusion that the mechanism of the formation of these types of plasmas are not understood. I think the other interesting aspect will be the magnetic correlation to plasmas and the effect on humans to near-field exposures.
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Re: The Condign Report

Unread postby Faderbaby » Fri May 30, 2008 9:44 am

CONTENTS OF VOLUME THREE (Miscellaneous Related Studies)

uap_vol3_pgs1to9.pdf
The third and final voume contains formerly-'Secret' radar data and is heavily redacted. It includes its own index, preface, and Executive Summary. This is a separate Executive Summary and contains data more highly-classified than what could be included in the 'Restricted' (a
security classification) Executive Summary. This summary looks at collision risk for aircraft, foreign military interest in UAP,and possible strategic threats (and exotic possibilities).

uap_vol3_pgs10to20.pdf
Chapter1 Radar Detection Of UAPs In The UKADR
Interesting items regarding current flow in the atmosphere and possibility of aircraft becoming 'charged' and encountering other charged bodies (page 4). Requirement of plasma to have a minimum electron density in order to be detectable to radar, but other variables are discussed. Reflection is dependant on the the radar operating wavelength and the irregularity of the plasma (which sounds to me like phase cancellation). Plasma Cylinders & Vortex Rings. Near field vs. far-field.
Summary of UKADGE radar performance against plasmas. A lot of this is redacted, but a distinction is made between laboratory and atmospheric plasmas. Overall, the small number of 'radar cases' is accounted for.

uap_vol3_pgs21to30.pdf
Chapter 2 (page 8): Potential UAP Hazards To Aircraft
In short, it is highly advised that the greatest hazard to aircraft comes from taking extreme evasive manouvers and that plasmas are rarer above 20,000 feet. Plasmas are less likely to be visible during the day and rarely have a 'solid' appearance. A fatal accident might have occurred while flying low and fast and then taking evasive action. Evasive action is the greatest threat to aviation.

Chapter 3 (page 5): Potential For Exploitation Of UAP-Associated Effects
One reason for this entire analysis was to look for military applications for the phenomenon. Redacted content. Exotic vehicles are considered and the arguments for and against are mentioned. Suggestion that mass-less life could exist elsewhere in the universe and that "UFO" researchers have attributed such life forms with a technological capability that can also be explained with bouyant charged plasmas. Potential applications are redacted.

uap_vol3_pgs39to48.pdf
Chapter 4: UAP Work In Other Countries
USSR, China, USA & Canada. Some interesting Russian studies are mentioned. The USA is "concerned with the ever busy UFO publishing industry". (This from the nation that gave the world Teletubbies! - sorry :).

Annex A
Target Signature Control
Spherical Formations In The Atmosphere (Proposed Theory, Corona Discharge, Shells)

Generation Of Plasma Formations
This section deals with a Russion project during the Cold War. It includes Signature Control as a cloaking mechanism by modifying plasma ionisation.
Spherical Formation In The Atmosphere
A 1995 Russion review correlates spheres to human activity (missile launches, atmospheric pollution). It mentions the size difference as compared to ball lighting (with the spheres being much larger). Proposed Theory: This is a mathematical formula. Anybody pass calculus?
Corona Discharge & Shells.
Summary: The Russian theory has distinct similarities to the UAP model produced based on the UK database.

END OF VOLUME THREE

Well, I'm glad I indexed this! It's not perfect, but might help find some interesting material. I would suggest reading the first Executive Summary and, probably, Annex A will be interesting to the group. I'll look forward to any new insights.
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Re: The Condign Report

Unread postby StefanR » Fri May 30, 2008 11:08 am

Thank you Faderbaby, for the huge effort in compiling this index-list. This will be very handy later on.
So if I understand it right no author is named for the report?
In what way was Philip J. Klass known by the UFO-forums you visited?
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Re: The Condign Report

Unread postby Faderbaby » Fri May 30, 2008 11:35 am

Thanks - I appreciate that. I only wish older posts were editable, but I think it works. The author of Condign was a security-cleared defence contractor (single individual). Nothing else is known, though certain deductions could be made regarding the skill set to produce the document and whether that points to anyone in particular. That's another discussion.

Klass was one of the original individuals who connected plasma with UFOs and probably this is one reason Condign and plasma was unpopular among "UFOlogists" (though they will, grudgingly, acknowledge that, okay - probably some UFOs are plasmas)(but there are still aliens visiting the planet!)(And that's final!). They feel they've "been there - done that". I think Klass is looked at with some affection as a real character in the overall debate.
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