- The pre-crash forum had a good thread on geodes and similar formations. It looks like that thread has not been recovered. On the EU board I started a thread on Complete Gamut of ED Effects re galaxies, stars, planets, planetoids etc. I intended to post this message on geodes there, but it seems more appropriate for planetary science.
- Below are excerpts from TPODs re concretions
. My intent is to classify the range of types of concretions, or spherules, formed by ED and try to glean some clues re how they're formed. The last TPOD below is about the cavern of huge crystals in Mexico. I found a couple of sites that have more excellent photos. See the links below. Has anyone determined yet how such huge crystals form by ED? I also found sites about oil and water-filled geodes and gemstones. See links.
Mar 28, 2005
are often composed of minerals different from the primary constituent of the stratum in which they lie. Many are formed from carbonates, but others of iron ore or silica and other varieties as large as 10 feet in diameter. They are often layered like an onion. Inside their spherical shells, some are hollow, others contain crystals, sandstone, or even petroleum. virtually all concretions are harder and more durable than their surroundings. concretions are confined to specific areas. The layers in which they are embedded are often level and undistorted around the concretions. not all concretions are spherical, and some take very odd shapes. One cluster had long handles perfectly parallel and horizontal, point[ing] north.
are blue-grey spherules on Mars - the fused layers of Martian soil around the spherules look very much like the glassy fused material of fulgurites created by lightning strikes. The small spheres stand out, but we also see fused globules of material where a diffuse electrical discharge lacked the intensity to create discrete spheres. Diffuse discharges are not homogeneous but consist of smaller-scale channels that vary in intensity. Trapped gases may not have time to be released before the molten surface has solidified.
Aug 27, 2004
- BB-sized spheres scattered all over Meridiana Planum were nicknamed "*blueberries" because of their grey-blue color and the way they are embedded in the Martian rocks "like blueberries in a muffin." were identified as hematite - *concretions.
- *Moqui balls
from Utah are hematite spheres with sandstone cores
- *thunder eggs
, and *concretions
as large as ten feet in diameter. many of the spheres are layered or hollow or even contain a separate "nut" rattling around inside. Many are pressurized and squirt when the shell is cut. Most of them are clustered in zones, not randomly distributed.
: a giant hailstone produced by a Midwestern thunderstorm is also similar in form to the cauliflower-like shell and inward growing crystals of a geode
Jun 29, 2007
- *Stone Eggs
: large stone spheres in China - evidence that the spheres either “fell from heaven” or were formed in mysterious and possibly catastrophic events. The stones are of various sizes and are so numerous that the hill in which they were discovered was called a “stone egg mountain.” A similar grouping of stone spheres has been found in the Bosnian pyramid structure. ranging in size from a few inches to several feet in diameter, the spheres are remarkably similar to ones found buried in Costa Rica.
- glassified spherules
are created with high voltage discharges - several kinds of “stone egg
- *Moqui balls
– iron spheres with sandstone cores, *cannonballs
, thunder eggs
, *Apache tears
. Many of them are hollow inside. And mysteriously, geodes found in Illinois and neighboring regions of Iowa and Missouri are filled with oil under pressure.
- http://www.geodegallery.com/keokuk.htmlKeokuk geodes are also found containing water, and in at least one area bitumen (oil). ... Some resemble fossils (photo of Keokuk geode resembling a horn coral fossil)
[looks like a snail shell too - LK].
- http://www.gamineral.org/enhydros.htmlMineral dealers at rock shows will occasionally offer specimens labeled enhydros for sale. What they are selling are typically quartz crystals with liquid inclusions. Within the liquid is a tiny bubble and if you tip the crystal back and forth the bubble will move. Scientists call these trapped liquids and their bubbles fluid inclusions. They are quite common. The white color of milky quartz is due to thousands or perhaps millions of microscopic fluid inclusions. Gemologists see inclusions when they look at certain gemstones (emerald is a good example) with a microscope. The liquid is not always water. A common fluid in ore forming processes is salty water. some inclusions trap hot salt water. When the salt water cools and contracts it forms a bubble and The salt begins to crystallize out as a halite crystal within the fluid, which in turn is trapped in the quartz crystal. Other things found in these fluid inclusions are carbon in fluids in Herkimer diamonds (doubly terminated quartz crystals from Herkimer, New York) and oil in fluorite from Elmwood, Tennessee. (Oil often fluoresces – check out your fluorite!) There are many more examples of wild stuff trapped in minerals. the fluid in the inclusion is an actual sample of fluid in which the mineral was growing! For this reason fluid inclusions are geochemical time capsules for scientists. an enhydros is “a hollow nodule or geode of chalcedony containing water, sometimes in large amounts.” This is different from the fluid inclusions that we have been talking about - chalcedony is a microcrystalline, fibrous variety of quartz made up of hundreds or thousands of tiny elongated quartz crystals.
- A Brobdingnagian Geode
geodes found near Niota Illinois are filled with solid tar or liquid bitumen.
- http://www.rsc.org/delivery/_ArticleLinking/DisplayArticleForFree.cfm?doi=CA8824200810&JournalCode=CACrystallised Paraffin in Geodes in a Basaltic Lava. -In a part of the basaltic lava, at Paternh, in the neighbourhood of Etna, small geodes occur about 1 cm in diameter, filled with solid crystallised paraffin. It is in the form of large yellowish-white pellucid plates of waxy appearance. It was from this same lava that the author formerly extracted a paraffin oil, from which a solid paraffin was separated.
- Chemical Nature of Liquid Inclosures found in Crystals of Native Sulphur. -Some crystals of sulphur from the Solfara, in Catania, Sicily, were found to contain inclosures of a liquid, also gaseous bubbles. laminae under the microscope seen traversed by numerous tubular cavities likewise filled with an aqueous solution containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium chloride, barium and strontium chlorides.
Mar 25, 2005
are embedded in what appears to be fused layers of soil that are exposed on the margins of the crater. were identified as “hematite concretions”. Hematite is an iron-rich mineral and is the primary constituent of the soil surrounding the blueberries.
Mar 27, 2007
: The distinctive ridge around Saturn’s moon Iapetus bears an eerie similarity to equatorial ridges around concretions on Earth.
- *sandstone concretion
was found on a farm near the Red River in Texas, and the
- *hematite Moqui marble
was found in Utah
with equatorial ridges
- Significant patterns already observed include concentric layering of different materials, radial structures, and polar markings. Similarities with
, glassy spherules
- The abstract for a paper, showing that electric discharge can produce some of the mysterious spheres found on Earth without water can be seen here. http://absimage.aps.org/image/MWS_APR05-2004-000006.pdf
Dec 07, 2007
- *Electric Caverns
- *gigantic uplifts
such as Shiprock and the Brandberg Massif
- *Grand Canyon
- Lichtenberg figures etched into soils and rocks
- plasma forms "tufts" and "blooms" of electricity as in "plasma sphere" devices
- the majority of caverns
contain mineralogical samples that cannot be defined through the corrosive action of water
- Giant Crystals Cave
in the Naica Mine of Chihuahua, Mexico has mineral deposits of enormous size, as well as delicate flowers and wisps of crystal - formed out of semiconductor materials: selenite, calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide and lead sulfides. The crystal matrix shown above is an example of the "spray" that might have been created when a powerful electric current exploded out of the rock face into a void beneath the surface.
- The nuclei of charged particles could have been carried along with the current flow and either ionized by the passage of electricity, or forced out of solution within the solid medium. The filaments of energy flew out of a central point and then crossed empty air seeking the path of least resistance, whereupon they continued into the stone, impacting at multiple locations. Wherever the electric arcs passed they left behind consolidated crystals condensed along their interior trackways.
- Jenolan Caves
near Sydney, Australia has Clear helicites everywhere with mind-boggling shapes that defy gravity. Some of the chambers within the cave complex are etched with Lichtenberg figures and upright columns of translucent gypsum crystal.
, or the fused trackway of lightning bolts through refractory minerals, are common in Jenolan and in most other caverns
found therein actually be the remains of fulgurites
? As we have suggested in the past, some geographical features, like rivers, may have "adopted" discharge channels after they were excavated by a plasma blast. Perhaps drops of water roll down stalactites
after their formation as fulgurites
- Lechuguilla Cave
in New Mexico - in one of its vast rooms are thickets of gypsum blossoms like small crystal bushes. Merely walking too close is enough for them to collapse with tiny tinkling sounds. has "boreholes
" as well - horizontal tunnel that penetrates for miles into the rock - exhibits a helical shape - a spinning electric arc blasting out the material as it spiraled through the strata.
- In Mexico is Cave
of Swallows, a favorite place for jumpers because it is 875 meters deep, similar to the "skylights
" discovered on Mars.
- http://www.science-frontiers.com/sf131/sf131p08.htm4 kilometers from Almeria, in north-eastern Spain, was found a veritable crystal cave Inside a giant geode lined with near-perfect, transparent crystals of gypsum, some of which are 11 feet long.