Current standard theory of star and planet formation goes like this: Gravity pulls in a ball of dust, gas and plasma, which will spin and form into a disk. In the center of the disk the compression gets so high that the temperature rise to millions of degrees and ignite a fusion reaction, and a star is born. From the leftovers of the disk the planets clump together by gravity forces. The asteroid belt located between Mars and Jupiter, is leftovers from the protoplanetary disk.
My research suggests that our current standard theory of star and planet formation is incorrect. I will also show that there might be a more gradually and natural growth of both stars and planets.
The asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter is the strongest proof of the current standard theory. But there is an alternative view on how the asteroid belt came into existence. It is the exploding planet hypothesis by Tom Van Flandern. A planet located between Mars and Jupiter exploded and the asteroid belt is the debris. Iron meteorites are magnetic, and contain about 10% nickel, just as a planet core, the iron meteorites may then be pieces of the core of the exploding planet. The strongest argument against the exploding planet hypothesis is that there are not enough mass in the asteroid belt to count for a whole planet. If we add irregular moons and dwarf planets with strange orbits and without magnetic fields, we have more than enough mass to count for a planet. Debris from the explosion would also bombard the Sun, Jupiter and Mars, and to some degree Earth.
A huge asteroid hit Mars, or passed very close to Mars and disrupted the electric and the magnetic field. The atmosphere of Mars where blown away, and without any atmospheric pressure, the water will boil away. Oh those poor Martian’s!
There are strong evidence of water present at Mars in the past, like gypsum (that can only be formed in water), ravines and ice. Mars also have a weak magnetic field, which imply it had a stronger magnetic field in the past, but this has probably diminished when the loss of the atmosphere disrupted the planetary current circuit. I don’t exactly know when this happened, but it’s probably many millions of years ago, and it may also be linked to a mass extinction on Earth. Here are some wise words from the founder of the exploding planet hypothesis, Tom Van Flandern:
As science progresses we will eventually unravel the mystery of our origins, and the solution will come sooner if our minds are prepared to accept the truth when it is found, however fantastic it may be. If we are guided by our reason and our scientific method, if we let the Universe describe its wonder to us, rather than telling it how it ought to be, then we will soon come to the answers we seek, perhaps even within our own lifetimes.
Jupiter has been referred to as a failed star, but it might not be failing. Jupiter radiates at least 2,5 times the energy it receives from the sun, and it has a magnetic field which is almost 20 000 times stronger than Earth’s magnetic field, it has huge storms and fast rotation. Jupiter has massive intense radiation belts and large plasma fountains which creates something similar to solar wind. We have also found an electric current circuit down Jupiter’s magnetotail, and I find it probable that the whole magnetosphere act as a electromagnetic turbine driven by solar wind, and maybe even some accelerator based fusion reactions.
There are also electric circuits that connect the Galilean moons Io, Europa and Ganymede to Jupiter, Callisto is located outside Jupiter’s strong outer Van Allen belt and no connection is found. The moon Io has gotten most attention, because it’s said that it has large volcanoes spewing out ionized sulfur into space, the sulfur get neutralized and creates an equatorial plasma torus where Io’s orbit is located. The plasma torus co-rotates with Jupiter and Jupiter’s magnetosphere with a speed of 74 km/s. The electrons created by ionization of sulfur travel parallel to magnetic flux lines and create a bright spot in both of the Auroras on Jupiter.
Well I don’t quite buy this solution; volcanoes causing strong sustained currents in space seem to be a bit too fantastic to me, and Europa and Ganymede makes aurora footprints without volcanic activity, so there must be another solution.
I think the moon is a part of a current circuit which is connected to Jupiter, and if an electric current with ions and electrons pass through a Galilean moon or planet, the ions can’t easily travel through matter and will be accumulated, which result in increased mass of the moon/planet. Three out of four of the Galileans moons leave electron footprints in the aurora of Jupiter, which means electrons flow from the moons to Jupiter along magnetic fields. If this current shall flow parts of Io, Europa and Ganymede have to be more negatively charged than Jupiter’s auroras.
Jupiter is larger than all other planets in the solar system combined, but this doesn’t prevent it to be the planet which spins fastest, with a rotation period of only 10 hours. I find it probable that Jupiter and the three closest Galilean moons are acting similar as statorless unipolar Faraday generators:
If we imagine that the disk is Jupiter with its rotating magnetic field, the negative brush is Io, the wire is the magnetic “flux lines” going to both auroras, and the load is the resistance in the atmosphere of Jupiter. With this setup, Io will get negatively charged with electrons and become something similar to a cathode. It will then pull on ions in the auroras of Jupiter, and plasma from the plasma torus. The plasma torus can further pull in plasma and ions from Jupiter’s ionosphere along all connected flux lines, and we also get contributions from Jupiters plasma fountains and plasmasphere.
The ring current in the plasma torus will get a negative charge from Io and can pull in ions and plasma. The plasma will again get pulled towards Io where it will recombine into more neutral charged atoms, while emitting light. The observed light from more than 400 vulcanoes, could rather be emitted by an electrical phenomena. The moon itself could also act as a fusor pulling on ions, what impact speed will we get when we accelerate 74km/s ions from the plasmatorus towards Io? Which role the magnetic field of the moon play is another question.
All Galilean moons orbit’s Jupiter in the same direction as Jupiter spin, as all planets orbit the Sun in the direction the Sun spin. The statorless unipolar generator model might explain the direction of orbit and spin of galaxies, stars, planets and moons. And the orbits and spin of these are almost always in the same direction. We might also find some mathematical relations between orbit periods, orbit radius, spin period, kinetic energy, currents and magnetic fields. Like the orbiting period relation/resonance 1:2:4 of Jupiter's moons Io, Europa and Ganymede. Currents and magnetism seem to play a vital role in the creation of heavenly bodies. It seems like we even could engineer a space station orbiting Earth, which could collect its own mass and harvest an abundant supply of power from this power circuit, used for production or beamed down to Earth, it’s just to make a magnetic seed and watch the artificial moon grow. If we put it in the Li-5 the fifth Lagrange point, where the pull from the moon and the Earth is equal, it could even partly couple to the Sun’s even stronger power circuit. And also pick up charge differences just as our moon does. This could solve our energy problem and accelerate our space age. I vote yes!
What is the definition of a star? Does it have fusion in its atmosphere? Can it create planets? If one of the answers is yes I find it probable that Jupiter is a star. Exactly how the accelerator based fusion reactions happens I would like to discuss with you further in another post.
So if Jupiter is a star, then I wonder, can planets be star seeds? Is this how the universal three grows?
I find this utterly fascinating!
This is a work hypothesis, please join so we can settle the solution.