starbiter wrote:The files below show limestone/dolomite covering fossilized red sand dunes. The location is Red Rock Canyon, West of Las Vegas. I posted these earlier, but i don't think the links worked.
http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&ie=UT ... 4&t=p&z=13
http://docs.google.com/leaf?id=0B-GyNP5 ... y=CLPTkfgP
http://docs.google.com/leaf?id=0B-GyNP5 ... y=CJbeoKcP
Also large infiltrations of larger multi shaped flint os often embedded in the top layers of the chalk-limestone cliffs along the English coastline. No flint in Malta and only occasional outcrops in Malta which when they do occur are burnt.
MrAmsterdam wrote:Hello all,
While searching for piezoelectric properties of limestone I came across the following website;
If any of these stories can be confirmed youll have a couple of other clues that seem to point to electric phenomena.Update: Village Blazes Again
Jeremy Charles for The Mirror
March 18, 2004
A village hit by a series of mystery fires was in flames again yesterday, leaving experts more baffled than ever. The phenomenon began two months ago as fridges, washing machines and cookers all burst into flames for no reason.
Locals were evacuated amid calls for an exorcism but experts put the fires down to electrostatic interference from power pylons.
But just a month later, as villagers were moving back to Canneto di Caronia, near Messina, Sicily, fires have started again. Disconnected fuse boxes have burst into flames, car central locking systems blocked up and mobile phones have caught fire.
Yesterday mayor Pedro Spinnato said: "Yes, it's started all over again. Now we are back to where we started."
Last night experts, surveyors and engineers were probing the mystery.
Matt, maybe you can ask arround if any person saw simular stuff like this. Maybe they have mysterious fires too...
Relative humidity is the amount of water vapour that the air can hold. A low relative humidity means that the air is getting very dry, and fuels will start to lose moisture, they will become drier as well. And then when they become dry, that is when they are prone or susceptible to being ignited and fires starting. So generally, the drier the air becomes, the lower the relative humidity, that is when the fire risk or the fire danger will start to increase.
http://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/Contexts ... -fire-risk
starbiter wrote:The craters on the surface of Malta could be areas where a glow mode of plasma discharge increased to arc mode causing removal of material and the raising of the rim. Do the craters occur where horizontally flowing plasma would be pinched by the landscape? When a canyon narrows the damage seems to increase, when it widens back out the burning and melting diminish, in my neck of the woods. Malta could be different than the canyons of the Western US.
“ Field description of the veins in the study area:
The veins are predominantly vertical. In some places they are run in the same direction, in other places multiple directions exist, or even a random direction.
The veins seem to be restricted to a geologic unit known as the Chadron Formation, and pinch out with stratigraphic ascent before they reach the overlying Brule Formation.
Chalcedony, a cryptocrystalline form of quartz, is the most common vein material. Because chalcedony is significantly harder than the surrounding sediment the veins stand out as small ridges.
The veins are zoned, with darker chalcedony at the margin, and lighter chalcedony towards the middle. The larger veins also show a core of calcite.
The veins are note evenly distributed. They occur in distinct areas or patches. In addition, the patches seem to be related to the faults. One patch occurs at the tip of a larger fault. Others seem to truncate against faults.
The larger veins often show evidence of slip along the vein, suggesting a continuum between the two structures. Interestingly, the slip often involves a vein shortening component (they look like small thrusts). However, considering the vertical orientation of the veins this is consistent with horizontal extension.
The veins often come in stepped (en echelon) geometries.
Tips of overlapping adjacent, but parallel veins can often be seen curving towards each other. These structures are called tip curls.
Looking down on subvertical chalcedony vein within the brown siltstones of the Chadron Fm.. The chalcedony vein shows zonation with a lighter interior and darker margins. Also note the thin zone of green alteration in the brown adjacent siltstones along the vein margins.
Looking down obliquely at stepped (en echelon) veins (traced with red dashed lines) showing a good tip curls. Such curl geometries can indicate relative timing (in this case the two veins formed at the same time.
Looking down obliquely at stepped (en echelon) veins showing a good tip curl as traced by red lines. Note here that only one of the veins shows the tip curl. In this particular case one might infer the vein with the tip curl came later.
The view is looking down. A more complex array of veins showing two dominant directions at roughly 60 degrees to each other (average orientation indicated by red lines). Note the distinctive bend of the larger vein adjacent to the smaller vein at the top.
The ridge that dips to the left is a fault surface. The small red lines show some en echelon veins that occur at its tip. Veining and faulting are related temporally and mechanically. However, this year we will be working mainly with veins in places without faulting.
Associated research questions: Even though the veins are relatively simple structures there are plenty of research questions to be explored.
In map view is the direction of the various veins random or non random, and if non-random, in what direction? This is the research question we will focus on.
What time did the veins form?
Why do the veins occur in distinct patches, and why do the patches occur where they do?
What is the significance of the various orientations of veins?
How far away did the fluids from which the chalcedony and calcite vein fill grew derive?
How hot were the fluids?
Where the fluids ascending, descending, moving sideways or did they have some more complex movement pattern?
Why are the veins constrained in terms of their vertical extent?
How deep below the ground did they form?
Are the veins antitaxial (with new material added at the walls) or syntaxial (with new material added at a median parting)? Related to this is the question as to whether the chalcedony or the calcite formed first?
What is the significance of the various colors of chalcedony?
Do they have a characteristic length-width ratio, and if so what is it and why?
How much local strain do they represent?
Did these veins grow, propagate, quickly or slowly?
What were the internal forces in the earth (the stresses) when these veins grew?
What is the significance of the curved tips some of the veins have?
118 J. F. WHITE AND J. F. CORWIN
l Thus an upper limit for the formation and persistence of chalcedony is suggested at
about 300o. Concerning the lower limit, it has not been possible to grow
qvartz at temperatures below 100" C. This is also in line with natural
o1.trr.n..., opal being the mineral present at lower temperature' White
(1955) noted the rarity of opal in hot spring deposits at temperatures
greater than 100"; its place being taken by chalcedony and qtartz'
White, Brannock, and Murata (1956) observed that opal probably forms
at temperaturesa sh igh as 140oC . but is unstablea nd changest o chalcedony
or quartz. Thus a temperature of formation on the order of 100-
300' C. is indicated for chalcedony.
Pressure may be more important than temperature in controlling the
occurrence of chalcedony.
http://www.minsocam.org/ammin/AM46/AM46_112.pdfCrypto or Macro - Environmental Factors
What factors determine if chalcedony or quartz crystals will form?
Suppose we put a quartz crystal into a saturated watery solution of orthosilicic acid. Will the crystal grow as the water evaporates, like salt crystals do in salt brine? It primarily depends on the temperature: at room temperature, silicic acids have a strong tendency to polymerize, although the solubility of orthosilicic acid is very low. And in fact sometimes quartz crystals are found that have an opal or chalcedony cap. The speed of polymerization has surpassed the speed of growth of the crystal at that temperature.
The following table lists factors that promote or inhibit the formation of either macrocrystalline or cryptocrystalline quartz.
Promoting Factors Inhibiting Factors
Temperatures above ca. 150°C
Low concentrations of silica in watery solutions
Presence of electrolytes (NaCl etc.) in watery solutions
Temperatures below ca. 100°C
High concentrations of silica in watery solutions
Temperatures below ca. 150°C
High concentrations of silica in watery solutions
Temperatures above ca. 200°C
Presence of electrolytes (NaCl etc.) in watery solutions
Absence of water
There is no clear line that separates the conditions of crypto- or macrocrystalline quartz formation, and there is not a single determining factor.
Other factors, like the pressure, may also play a role. One factor is clearly inhibiting the formation of cryptocrystalline quartz: the absence of liquid water - cryptocrystalline quartz is not a primary constituent of magmatic rocks like granite or basalt. The chalcedony that is commonly found in basalt ~[ or ‘red rock’ extrusions ] is a secondary product of alterations of the host rock under the influence of water.
XRD analysis was performed ... The different signatures suggest multiple mechanisms may be operating to generate the chalcedony veins.
Analysis of grain mounts has identified the existence of unaltered volcanic ash (in the form of glass shards) in some of the siltstone and claystone samples. Well preserved volcanic ash is puzzling, given that diagenesis
~[ diagenesis - The chemical, physical, and biological changes that a sediment undergoes after initial deposition and burial that convert the sediment to consolidated rock and/or result in the creation of some forms of porosity.]
could be expected to have altered the glass. Observed stratigraphic differences in glass preservation and instances of devitrification also point to a complex diagenetic history.
It would be natural to expect the fracture of solid rocks to take place chiefly where the bending of the strata has been sharpest, and such rending may produce ravines giving access to running water and exposing the surface to atmospheric waste. The entire absence, however, of such cracks at points where the strain must have been greatest, as at a, Fig. 63, is often very remarkable, and not always easy of explanation. We must imagine that many strata of limestone, chert, and other rocks which are now brittle, were pliant when bent into their present position. They may have owed their flexibility in part to the fluid matter which they contained in their minute pores, as before described p. 62 and in part to the permeation of sea-water while they were yet submerged.
[ 86 ]
At the western extremity of the Pyrenees, great curvatures of the strata are seen in the sea-cliffs, where the rocks consist of marl, grit, and chert. At certain points, as at a, Fig. 70, some of the bendings of the flinty chert are so sharp that specimens might be broken off well fitted to serve as ridge-tiles on the roof of a house.
Although this chert could not have been brittle as now, when first folded into this shape, it presents, nevertheless, here and there, at the points of greatest flexure, small cracks, which show that it was solid, and not wholly incapable of breaking at the period of its displacement. The numerous rents alluded to are not empty, but filled with chalcedony and quartz.
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