solrey on Fri Sep 18, 2009 8:29 pm
Oops, that should be direct evidence for H2O will be <0.1%
From NASA on Sep 24:
To put that into perspective, if you harvested one ton of the top layer of the Moon's surface, you could get as much as 32 ounces of water."
A scientific theory must be:
1. a simple unifying idea that postulates nothing unnecessary
2. logically consistent (internally and externally)
3. Useful (describes and explains observed phenomena)
4. logically "OR" Empirically tested and based upon Controlled, Repeated Experiments . A theory which cannot be tested empirically is useless for researchers.
5. lead to predictions or retrodictions that are testable. A theory which has not made any actually verified predictions might prove useful in the future when its predictions are verified, but not currently. A theory which cannot provide retrodictions (to utilize present information or ideas to infer or explain a past event or state of affairs) may also be useful in the future, but not currently. If a theory's results cannot be reproduced, it is impossible to determine if those results were ever actually valid (rather than the result of error or fraud).
Congrats must also be said to those who put all the effort in starting this website and those who have supported it. Only had one chance to thank Wal, David and the rest in person. Viva la Revolucion!
23rd August 2009, 02:15 PM
BTW, there are a number of alkaline, or base, minerals that will produce H2O when reacting with an acid, the H+, in the solar plasma stream. The next reaction that would occur is when that water then reacts with free electrons, liberated from the surface, within the electric field of the discharge current. Mineral salts in the dust and flakes etched from the surface are probably involved in this reaction. The cathode reaction is:
2H2O + 2e- -> 2OH- + H2
23rd August 2009, 02:15 PM
Mercury like a comet? This is not just my opinion.
Mercury has a comet-like gas tail.
What about the atmosphere?
MESSENGER Scientists "Astonished" to Find Water in Mercury's Thin Atmosphere
Well, not really water. Water related ions, like OH-.The surprising result is the detection of water-related ions like O+, OH-, and H2O+. Credit: NASA / JHUAPL / U. Michigan
How could there be water on Mercury? Zurburchen listed three possibilities, which are not mutually exclusive. Firstly, it has long been theorized (but not yet proved) from Earth-based radar observations that there may be reservoirs of water ice in small areas of Mercury's poles where local topography creates permanently shadowed spots in crater walls that might trap water over the age of the solar system. Second, the water could come from comets. Third, the process of chemical sputtering could create water where none existed before from the ingredients of solar wind and Mercury rock, as Zurburchen explains.
"The solar wind is highly ionized. Those are radicals -- they want to make connections with everything that they can. Imagine a solar wind hydrogen showing up and hitting the surface. It weathers whatever the mineral is, and steals an oxygen. If you do that, you get something like OH-, for example." OH-, also known as a hydroxyl group, would produce a peak at atomic mass 17 on the FIPS spectrum. "You can do it in reverse -- an oxygen from the solar wind can steal a hydrogen. The process is called chemical sputtering."
I think I've mentioned chemical sputtering as a way to produce OH-. Sodium is abundant, and the water related ions were surprisingly abundant, given the data on "magnetic tornado's", a.k.a. "flux transfer events", or a "discharge vortex" implies a Townsend dark discharge which could be another process for producing OH- as I've previously described. Was this overlooked, or was this discounted, or even feasible?In an acid-base neutralization reaction,
– H+ from acid reacts with the OH– from base → water, H2O
– The cation (M+) from base combines with anion from acid (X–) → the salt
HX(aq) + BOH(aq) → H2O(l) + BX(aq)
acid base water salt
Note: -An acid will always react with a base to produce water and a salt.
– It does not matter if the salt produced is soluble or insoluble since water always forming means a reaction always occurs.
The next reaction that would occur is when that water then reacts with free electrons, liberated from the surface, within the electric field of the discharge current. Mineral salts in the dust and flakes etched from the surface are probably involved in this reaction. The cathode reaction is:
2H2O + 2e- -> 2OH- + H2
The reaction chain would result in a certain ratio of leftover sodium, likely a factor of the strength of the discharge.In September 1985, the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) Spacecraft passed through the plasma tail of Comet Giacobini–Zinner at a distance of 7800 km downstream from the nucleus. The relative velocity between comet and spacecraft was 21 km/s, and instruments aboard the spacecraft made magnetic field, energetic particle, and ion composition measurements. The composition measurements showed the presence of water group and CO+ions, as well as an appreciable, but localized flux of ions havingM/Q= 24 ± 1 adjacent to the edges of the plasma tail. These ions were tentatively identified by M. A. Coplanet al.(1987,J. Geophys. Res.92, 39–46) as either C+2or Na+. Motivated by recent observations of neutral sodium in the tail of Comet Hale–Bopp (G. Cremoneseet al., 1997,Astrophys. J. Lett.490, L199), the Giacobini–Zinner composition data have been reexamined, particularly with regard to the spatial distribution of theM/Q= 24 ± 1 ions, now identified as Na+. This conclusion along with other observations of neutral sodium in comets clearly show that there are a variety of sources of sodium in comets.
The ratio of the density of sodium to the density of potassium is (6 ± 3) to 1, which is close to the sodium to potassium ratio in the lunar surface, suggesting that the atmosphere originates from the vaporization of surface minerals.
An OH maser flare with a strong magnetic field in W75N
The flare consisted of several maser spots. Four of the spots were found to form Zeeman
pairs, all of them with a magnetic field strength of about 40 mG. This is the highest ever
magnetic field strength found in OH masers, an order of magnitude higher than in typical OH
H2O-masers have also been found near the OH masers inW75N, located in two clusters
around VLA1 and VLA2. Torrelles et al. (2003) have found a shell of water masers around
the ultra-compact HII region VLA2 with a radius of 160 AU. The shell is expanding with a
velocity of 28 km s−1 , perhaps episodically as in a recurrent outflow. The high magnetic
field OH maser spots Z4-Z7 are located very close to VLA2, at a distance of 55 mas
(±40 mas), or at the projected distance of 110 AU (±80 AU). Therefore, the OH masers
may well be located in the same shell as the water masers. The magnetic field in water
masers associated with star-forming regions is typically around 100 mG, which is about
the same order of magnitude as in the OH maser flare reported here....
A very strong magnetic field of 40 mG has been detected in several OH masers spots
which have appeared during a flare of OH maser emission in 2000, within 110 AU from
the ultra-compact HII region. The magnetic field probably originates in the exciting star
where its intensity is about 500 G, or from the compression of interstellar gas by MHD
shock, or in icy planetary bodies serving as nuclei for the maser spot emission.
In the same time interval the rest of the spectral features remained unchanged. All constant
features are connected with the ultra-compact HII region VLA1 while the variable
features are connected with VLA2.
The appearance of new strong maser features and the simultaneous dimming of nearby
features can be interpreted as originating from the passage of a magnetohydrodynamic
(MHD) shock (Alakoz et al. 2005). The shock was probably generated by the exciting
star of VLA2 and propagated in the gas of the stellar wind.
SCIENTISTS TAP INTO CLOUDS OF PURE ALCOHOL IN OUTER SPACE
COLUMBUS, Ohio -- Using data collected by researchers at Ohio State University, astronomers have found vast quantities of pure alcohol in an interstellar cloud some 10,000 light years from Earth. Scientists said the cloud, located near the constellation Aquila, contains enough alcohol to make 400 trillion trillion pints of beer.
The discovery was made during a study of how stars begin. Stars form from interstellar clouds, large conglomerations of gases and dust particles which can extend hundreds of light years across. Scientists have known for some time that the largest component of these clouds is hydrogen, but until now, they were not sure if ethyl alcohol molecules were also an ingredient...
Ethyl alcohol can only be observed in its gaseous phase. To observe the frequencies of ethanol, De Lucia and Herbst used a laboratory microwave spectrometer developed by De Lucia, a tabletop apparatus that shoots waves of radiation through a gaseous molecular sample. The molecule absorbs the radiation at selected radio frequencies, which are identical with the frequencies emitted by the molecules in space. A detector on the spectrometer records the frequencies for study....
..."It seems the ethanol molecule is found in relatively high concentrations in regions where stars are forming," Herbst said. "The current thought is that ethanol is formed on the surface of tiny sand-like particles in interstellar clouds. The heat from the star that is forming transforms the molecule to a gas and we are able to observe it."
...The research suggests that ethanol can be found in other interstellar clouds in which stars are forming, Herbst said.
junglelord wrote:WATER ON THE MOON: How much water can you squeeze out of a ton of moondust? About 32 ounces, according to NASA. In a press conference yesterday, the space agency announced that three spacecraft have found signs of water molecules mixed in lunar topsoil.
http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2009 ... nwater.htm
During the crossing, the moon comes in contact with a gigantic “plasma sheet” of hot charged particles trapped in the tail. The lightest and most mobile of these particles, electrons, pepper the moon’s surface and give the moon a negative charge.
On the moon’s dayside this effect is counteracted to a degree by sunlight: UV photons knock electrons back off the surface, keeping the build-up of charge at relatively low levels. But on the nightside, in the cold lunar dark, electrons accumulate and surface voltages can climb to hundreds or thousands of volts.
The ground, meanwhile, might leap into the sky. There’s growing evidence that fine particles of moondust might actually float, ejected from the lunar surface by electrostatic repulsion
Stranger still, moondust might gather itself into a sort of diaphanous wind. Drawn by differences in global charge accumulation, floating dust would naturally fly from the strongly-negative nightside to the weakly-negative dayside. This “dust storm” effect would be strongest at the moon’s terminator, the dividing line between day and night.
On the Moon, there is no rubbing. The dust is electrostatically charged by the Sun in two different ways: by sunlight itself and by charged particles flowing out from the Sun (the solar wind).
On the daylit side of the Moon, solar ultraviolet and X-ray radiation is so energetic that it knocks electrons out of atoms and molecules in the lunar soil. Positive charges build up until the tiniest particles of lunar dust (measuring 1 micron and smaller) are repelled from the surface and lofted anywhere from meters to kilometers high, with the smallest particles reaching the highest altitudes, Stubbs explains. Eventually they fall back toward the surface where the process is repeated over and over again.
If that's what happens on the day side of the Moon, the natural question then becomes, what happens on the night side? The dust there, Stubbs believes, is negatively charged. This charge comes from electrons in the solar wind, which flows around the Moon onto the night side. Indeed, the fountain model suggests that the night side would charge up to higher voltages than the day side, possibly launching dust particles to higher velocities and altitudes.
Day side: positive. Night side: negative. What, then, happens at the Moon's terminator--the moving line of sunrise or sunset between day and night?
There could be "significant horizontal electric fields forming between the day and night areas, so there might be horizontal dust transport," Stubbs speculates. "Dust would get sucked across the terminator sideways." Because the biggest flows would involve microscopic particles too small to see with the naked eye, an astronaut would not notice dust speeding past. Still, if he or she were on the Moon's dark side alert for lunar sunrise, the astronaut "might see a weird, shifting glow extending along the horizon, almost like a dancing curtain of light." Such a display might resemble pale auroras on Earth.
What could cause this? Stubbs has an idea: "The dayside of the moon is positively charged; the nightside is negatively charged." At the interface between night and day, he explains, "electrostatically charged dust would be pushed across the terminator sideways," by horizontal electric fields ...
Even more surprising, Olhoeft continues, a few hours after every lunar sunrise, the experiment's temperature rocketed so high--near that of boiling water--that "LEAM had to be turned off because it was overheating."
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