- The way our interest in fulgurites started was that we were doing work for the Electric Power Research Institute and the issue was, how does lightning get to underground power cables? At that time people thought that when lightning hit the ground it would just spread out and maybe get to the underground power cables. It turns out that what happens, in Florida sand for example, is that it doesn't spread out. It goes through the ground just like it goes through the air in a path that's about an inch in diameter.
- Q: Is lightning always an inch in diameter?
- Roughly. And when it goes into the ground, it just keeps going until it hits some conductor that can carry the current off—at least in soil like Florida soil.
- Q: How hot is that? Will it fry things underground as well as it goes through it?
- Well, it certainly melts the sand. And then the sand re-solidifies as glass to form fulgurites.
- Q: Do you take these fulgurites and read their configuration in any particular way? Is there nothing about their shape that is informative to you?
- The important thing to us about fulgurites is the way the total lightning current entered the ground and entered a power cable. So we excavated a lot of the fulgurites going into underground power cables. The cables were badly damaged by the heat of the lightning. So the fulgurite actually goes right down to the underground power cable and then glass sand is sort of welded onto the hole that the fulgurite makes in the cable. The fulgurites therefore assumed a practical importance at least in the underground cable industry. There are reports of explosions in lines that are a couple of thousand feet below the surface with no connecting wires. So the issue is, can lightning travel a couple of thousand feet into the earth into an underground line and set off the gas? And the answer is, "Why not?" It goes through ten miles of air and the breakdown characteristics of soil are not much different than air.
- Q: Are many fulgurites the size of the one whose photograph you sent us?
- Oh no. That's the largest fulgurite on record. It's in the Guinness Book of Records, actually. The reason that one stopped is because the water table is there and the current could flow into the water. So if you've got some place where it's just pure sand for a long way and there's not much water, it can go for a long way. And they'll be branched just like they are in the air. It's just hard to get the branches out [of the ground].
- Some fulgurites are really fat, and some are really skinny, and some have fat walls and some have thin walls. They're all hollow. In my view what makes a fulgurite beautiful is that it's big in diameter with a real shiny inside, and that the outside surface is fluted. It gets corrugated and then sometimes there are big flutes sticking out. And then there's the color issue: depending on the sand, they can be more pinkish, or bluish, or grayish.
A typical one-inch fulgurite sells for about $50. I would think our 17-footer ought to be worth a couple of million.
- Welcome to the http://Impactites.net website!
- Our online catalogue contains impact rocks, rare minerals and tektites from several astroblemes from Russia and Ukraine. Some unusual fulgurites are present here also.
- Impact rocks are divided by the categories. As a classification base I took the article "Morphological, structural and lithological records of terrestrial impacts: an overview" (pdf 3514 Kb) written by V. L. MASAITIS in Australian Journal of Earth Sciences (2005) 52, (509 - 528).
- Rare minerals presented here are also the product of the meteorite impact.
- Our fulgurites are very unique! The most of fulgurites you can find on market are the result of lightning hits the sand. Usually in the desert. So the chemically they are glass based on silica. They are also called Lechatelierite.
- Our fulgurites became a reality when the lightning hits the massive basaltic rocks. The event produces a hole in a rock and the melted substance was pushed out the hole. And then it was cool down.
- The basic chemical composition is: Na2O- 2,3; MgO - 5,6; Al2O3 - 13,2; SiO4 - 47,5; K2O-0,5; CaO - 10,1; TiO2 - 1,9; MnO-0,4; FeO- 13,5 : total 95,00%
- You can see that Silica is less that 50%!
- Here is an image of the actual hole in the basaltic rocks on the site how it was found ...!
- the majority of caverns contain mineralogical samples that cannot be defined through the corrosive action of water
- Giant Crystals Cave in the Naica Mine of Chihuahua, Mexico has mineral deposits of enormous size, as well as delicate flowers and wisps of crystal - formed out of semiconductor materials: selenite, calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide and lead sulfides. The crystal matrix shown above is an example of the "spray" that might have been created when a powerful electric current exploded out of the rock face into a void beneath the surface.
- The nuclei of charged particles could have been carried along with the current flow and either ionized by the passage of electricity, or forced out of solution within the solid medium. The filaments of energy flew out of a central point and then crossed empty air seeking the path of least resistance, whereupon they continued into the stone, impacting at multiple locations. Wherever the electric arcs passed they left behind consolidated crystals condensed along their interior trackways.
- Jenolan Caves near Sydney, Australia has Clear helicites everywhere with mind-boggling shapes that defy gravity. Some of the chambers within the cave complex are etched with Lichtenberg figures and upright columns of translucent gypsum crystal.
- *Fulgurites, or the fused trackway of lightning bolts through refractory minerals, are common in Jenolan and in most other caverns. Could *stalactites and stalagmites found therein actually be the remains of fulgurites? As we have suggested in the past, some geographical features, like rivers, may have "adopted" discharge channels after they were excavated by a plasma blast. Perhaps drops of water roll down stalactites after their formation as fulgurites?
- Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico - in one of its vast rooms are thickets of gypsum blossoms like small crystal bushes. Merely walking too close is enough for them to collapse with tiny tinkling sounds. [It] has "boreholes" as well - horizontal tunnel that penetrates for miles into the rock - exhibits a helical shape - a spinning electric arc blasting out the material as it spiraled through the strata.
- In Mexico is Cave of Swallows, a favorite place for jumpers because it is 875 meters deep, similar to the "skylights" discovered on Mars.
- 4 kilometers from Almeria, in north-eastern Spain, was found a veritable crystal cave Inside a giant geode lined with near-perfect, transparent crystals of gypsum, some of which are 11 feet long.
- But in the floors of many of these channels appear glassified ridges, or “fulgurites”, as in the Gorgonum Region noted above. On a smaller scale the lightning’s transverse coronal filaments, always perpendicular to the direction of the primary discharge, formed and fused the same characteristic ripples in the regolith of the Arrhenius Region. In some channels, multiple lightning strokes have cut terraces, each with its faint fulgurite ridges. The existence of these mysterious ridges is a crucial prediction of the Electric Universe.
- In the electric view, therefore, both the domed craters and the accompanying trenches of the Arrhenius Region are the result of cosmic lightning strikes. Where an electric arc “stuck” briefly for a while to a point on the surface before being extinguished, it produced domed craters, as in Dr. Ransom’s experiments. Dr. Ransom has informed us that in his experiments, if a lower energy arc was extinguished before a complete spherule was formed, the result was a dome. The fully rounded spherules were the result of higher-energy discharges. From the Electric universe viewpoint, the domed craters and the “wormy” channels simply reflect two common electrical discharge effects on a surface. We expect to find them in close association. And we can confidently predict that more extensive laboratory experimentation will confirm the association in every important detail.
... except our fulgurites also don't have longitudinal stripes on them.
... and that the outside surface is fluted. It gets corrugated and then sometimes...
arc-us wrote:Or view the cymatics clip directly here http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid ... 824944516# starting at about the 10:09 mark for the above effects.
Naturally erupting dust clouds on Mars are creating structures that look surprisingly like trees near the planet's north pole. But don't be fooled – it's just an optical illusion, NASA scientists say.
The Martian "trees" are actually dark basaltic sand pushed to the surface of sand dunes by sun-heated solid carbon dioxide ice, or dry ice, sublimating directly into vapor, explained Candy Hansen, a member of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) team at the University of Arizona.
The sand dunes form a nearly complete ring around Mars' north pole and are covered by a thin layer of reddish Martian dust and patches of dry ice. To date, there is no firm evidence of any type of Martian biology, past or present, plant or otherwise.
In the Martian spring, the sun warms the ice, causing it to sublimate directly into vapor, and the resulting gas dislodges surrounding dust and sand particles.
"What we think is happening is that the dark sand is sliding down the bright frosted portion of the dune," Hansen told SPACE.com.
The image, taken by MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera, is part of a series of Martian images appearing in a special issue of the journal Icarus this month.
The Martian illusion is not the first to capture the imaginations of people on Earth.
In 1976, a photograph of a rock formation on Mars beamed to Earth by NASA's Viking 1 orbiter looked to many like a face carved in the Martian surface. The Face on Mars photo's legacy has survived to this day, even after additional observations by more advanced spacecraft have revealed it to be a trick of light and shadows.
Since then, other Martian illusions have popped up in images from orbiters and rovers, including an object that resembled a small bunny and a rock that looked like a female figure to some and Bigfoot to others.
The streaks in the new image look as if they are rising up from the sand dunes, but that's an illusion, Hansen said. "You're looking at the slip face of the dune, and where the sand comes to a stop, it forms a sort of scallop-shaped edge at the bottom."
Each dark sand streak can measure up to 164 feet (50 meters) in length.
HiRISE actually caught one of the dust eruptions as they happened.
"If you look closely, you can see this little dust cloud casting a tiny shadow," Hansen said.
http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/m ... 00113.html
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