Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby starbiter » Wed Sep 11, 2013 7:49 am

sureshbansal342 wrote:Can anyone show me any scientific paper that can prove scientifically that kerogen and bitumen has been formed from deceased organic matter only ??


Hi Sureshbansal342,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_shale

From Wiki,

Extraterrestrial oil shale

Some comets contain "massive amounts of an organic material almost identical to high grade oil shale," the equivalent of cubic kilometers of such mixed with other material;[82] for instance, corresponding hydrocarbons were detected in a probe fly-by through the tail of Comet Halley during 1986.[83]

michael steinbacher
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Spektralscavenger » Wed Sep 11, 2013 4:21 pm

Some of the petroleum may be biological rests but I think most of it is from inside Earth. In ancient times petroleum pools might have been common but now oxygen prevents it from reaching surface in significant amounts. Coal may have been formed from great discharges in petroleum reservoirs.
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby starbiter » Wed Sep 11, 2013 5:43 pm

Spektralscavenger wrote:Some of the petroleum may be biological rests but I think most of it is from inside Earth. In ancient times petroleum pools might have been common but now oxygen prevents it from reaching surface in significant amounts. Coal may have been formed from great discharges in petroleum reservoirs.




And these disjointed statements are based on?
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby sureshbansal342 » Wed Sep 11, 2013 11:37 pm

Spektralscavenger wrote:Some of the petroleum may be biological rests but I think most of it is from inside Earth. In ancient times petroleum pools might have been common but now oxygen prevents it from reaching surface in significant amounts. Coal may have been formed from great discharges in petroleum reservoirs.

But these abiotic hydrocarbons has been recycled throw the surface of the earth. this is the only model which can respect the all valid evidences by the current fossil fuel theory also.
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby sureshbansal342 » Wed Sep 11, 2013 11:42 pm

I am fully agreed with the most of scientific evidence by the fossil fuel theory.there is no doubt that commercial interesting accumulations of hydrocarbons has been formed from organic rich sedimentary rocks. I have fully respect for the method to find oil and gas by this theory. oil window etc. in brief most of the work is scientific but the problem is in pillar point that deceased organic matter is the basic raw material of kerogen and bitumen. presence of biotic characteristics in some thing do not prove that these are biotic in origin also. if both are present in organic rich sediments do not prove that these has been formed from deceased organic matter only. yes. i agreed some biotic oily material has been mixed in abiotic hydrocarbons in the burial history of the mixture.
but you want only that I should ignore the total work of the followers of abiotic theory . you want i should respect the work of fossil fuel theory 100 % even some of the portion is not scientific. there is no solid scientific paper that can satisfy me that kerogen and bitumen has been formed from deceased organic matter only. even if the pillar points are not clear than there is no meaning.
summary; Abiotic sources are the major contributor of global commercial interesting hydrocarbon accumulations and some biotic characteristics has been mixed in these in the burial history of the mixture.

This can add more new clues to find new oil and gas locations in current method .
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Spektralscavenger » Thu Sep 12, 2013 9:12 am

starbiter wrote:
Spektralscavenger wrote:Some of the petroleum may be biological rests but I think most of it is from inside Earth. In ancient times petroleum pools might have been common but now oxygen prevents it from reaching surface in significant amounts. Coal may have been formed from great discharges in petroleum reservoirs.




And these disjointed statements are based on?


Some of the papers on this thread provide evidence for abiotic origin of petroleum but what convinced me was this paper:
http://www.mitosyfraudes.org/Ingles2/FossilFuels.html

The other "disjointed statements" are just ideas. Do you find satisfactory the current explanation of coal origin? I don´t.
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Chromium6 » Thu Sep 12, 2013 11:29 am

The other "disjointed statements" are just ideas. Do you find satisfactory the current explanation of coal origin? I don´t.

I agree coal formation is a big question mark.


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Speaking of Telluric currents in the Earth, there are pretty cool devices to measure them for oil prospecting.

http://www.efieldexploration.com/edsupl ... il&Gas.pdf
http://www.efieldexploration.com/edsupl ... entury.pdf
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Geologist/producer finds passive electrotelluric surveying a worthwhile complement to other predrilling investigations


http://geophysicsinternational.com/gido ... _part2.pdf

-Electrotelluric logs taken from Harper field, Ector County, Texas, correlated nicely with electric logs from nearby bore holes. The electrotelluric logs were blind readings at the Devonian and Ellenburger levels, as selected from the electrical logs. The electrical logs were taken from a 12-ft KB, 80 the electrotelluric logs actually read lower than shown. Normally, ± 50 ft is considered an acceptable calibration because of the minute changes within the Earth's plasma envelope overtime. In this calibration, the surveyor wanted to determine which formation would be easiest to correlate. The Ellenburger was chosen because it’s Waddell and Connell sands were so distinctive, despite the fact that the Ellenburger is sometimes porous, and sometimes tight.


THE TECHNIQUE

The passive electrotelluric surveying technique applied by the Petro-Sonde service is based on known physical principles. Briefly, the electrical fields detected and recorded by the portable surveying instrument are generated by the interaction of solar radiation with the Earth's ionosphere. (These naturally occurring sheets of telluric currents have long been known to flow along the Earth's surface.1) The Earth's ionosphere, or plasma envelope, causes the electromagnetic pulses to pass into the Earth, and travel downward until they reach a change in conductivity caused by a change in lithological composition, porosity or mineral content. At that contact, a secondary electromagnetic pulse is generated that radiates to the surface, where it rejoins the ground wave and is detected by the survey unit's horizontal antenna. Hence, electrotelluric surveying is passive, unlike other forms of electromagnetic prospecting that require artificially induced currents.


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Published: July 12, 2006
Oil and Gas Exploration Technology Developments
Promising new technology detects hydrocarbons down to 20,000 feet

For years now, geoscientists have been focusing efforts using similar electromagnetic technologies on mineral exploration. But recently, with the rise is the price of oil, strategic interests have shifted and a few companies are placing more emphasis on the search for oil close to home.

"We're getting ready to fly surveys over the Front Range of the Rockies in Colorado and Wyoming," Johnson said.

The eField system detects the presence of hydrocarbons by reading patterns associated with natural electric currents known scientifically as Telluric currents which are induced by solar flares and lightning and penetrate deep to the earth's core. Charges effects occur at the interface of water and dissolved hydrocarbons - an effect now called NFIP (Natural Field Induced Polarization) in the literature. The accumulation of these charges and their migration to the surface (seep columns) is mapped by the eField Airborne EMT System.


http://newsblaze.com/story/200607120941 ... story.html


Image


Working with a Houston based Oil Company, eField has completed a survey of 3100 line miles over a variety of Oil & Gas targets in Texas. Multiple data streams collected from the airborne platform as well a ground station were downloaded on a daily basis to the eField Data Centre based in Orange County California.

eField Airborne EMT Results

The chart shows flight line data and Total Electric Field readings which in the first step of analysis are compared to the Total Magnetic Field. Further analysis allows us to compute Apparent Resistivity and NFIP - Natural Field Induced Polarization. The polarization occurs at the water-hydrocarbon interface identifying oil and gas anomalies from surface to 20,000 feet or more.

Oasis Montaj Features


The electric and magnetic field data reside in a custom developed database which then is interfaced with an Oasis montaj Software platform which has been enhanced to permit analysis of the multi-component airborne data.

Geosoft's Oasis montaj is powerful processing and mapping software for mineral exploration, oil and gas exploration, and earth science investigations including environmental projects and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) detection.

Map gallery - geophysical, geological, and other mapping software examplesUsing montaj, geoscientists can efficiently import, view, process, and share earth science datasets, grids and images within one integrated environment.

The Geosoft montaj viewer enables you to share Geosoft data within your company, and the larger geoscience community. Software plug-ins are available for ER Mapper, ArcGIS and MapInfo, providing superior connectivity between your montaj mapping software and your GIS, remote sensing or specialized software applications.


http://www.efieldexploration.com/realtimedata.htm

(Looks like the company is run by "Twilight in the Desert" people.)
http://www.efieldexploration.com/Refere ... 20Read.pdf
Last edited by Chromium6 on Thu Sep 12, 2013 11:54 am, edited 1 time in total.
On the Windhexe: ''An engineer could not have invented this,'' Winsness says. ''As an engineer, you don't try anything that's theoretically impossible.''
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby starbiter » Thu Sep 12, 2013 11:46 am

Spektralscavenger wrote:
starbiter wrote:
Spektralscavenger wrote:Some of the petroleum may be biological rests but I think most of it is from inside Earth. In ancient times petroleum pools might have been common but now oxygen prevents it from reaching surface in significant amounts. Coal may have been formed from great discharges in petroleum reservoirs.




And these disjointed statements are based on?


Some of the papers on this thread provide evidence for abiotic origin of petroleum but what convinced me was this paper:
http://www.mitosyfraudes.org/Ingles2/FossilFuels.html

The other "disjointed statements" are just ideas. Do you find satisfactory the current explanation of coal origin? I don´t.


This forum is based on the electric comet and recent catastrophes as described in legend. Comets contain graphite, and less pure carbon in abundance. Also hydrocarbons that are described as similar to the oil in shale. This abundant carbon seems to explain much of the "fossil fuel" we use today. Please familiarize yourself with the basic EU concepts, if You have an interest.

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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby starbiter » Thu Sep 12, 2013 11:56 am

[quote="Chromium6"]Speaking of Telluric currents in the Earth, there are pretty cool devices to measure them for oil prospecting.



This is thought provoking CR6. Try to imagine what would happen if Earth and comet Venus were close to each other and charged differently. Electric volcanoes might be expected, along with cinder cones, lava flows, and rains of oil. Basins like Green River with over half the worlds proven oil reserve might be filled with comet oil.

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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Chromium6 » Sat Sep 14, 2013 2:50 pm

Well this technology might bring sureshbansal342's theory of a "Living Earth" to life. News on this has been pretty quiet in the last few years though. Points to methane conversion via GMO bacteria:

Because a very ordinary fact of nature was observed through unconventional eyes, Bell BioEnergy, Inc. was established and has become a pioneer in the fuel production arena. J.C. Bell, CEO of Bell Plantation, is an inventor and always looking ahead.

As the story goes, Mr. Bell stood downwind from a herd of Bell Plantation cattle one late and especially warm summer afternoon when he observed a simple, but true, biological fact: bacteria, residing within the rumen of cattle, create a particular hydrocarbon byproduct. This original natural gas byproduct is better known as methane.

The scientific hypothesis then formulated by Mr. Bell was simple: identify the specific bacteria, and replicate the process; that is, create hydrocarbon! While the principles remain the same, the end products of Georgia Bell Plantation, Inc. have evolved from primarily food to food and energy. Hence, Georgia Belle Plantation, Inc. - a Georgia corporation - was restructured. Georgia Belle Plantation, Inc. has now become Bell Plantation, Inc. and successfully merged into Bell Research Companies, Inc, a Delaware corporation.


http://bellbioenergy.com/index.php?opti ... 2&Itemid=2

===========

Is energy 'miracle' finally taking off?

Published: 01/14/2010 at 8:40 PM
Joe Kovacs

A project trumpeted as a potential solution to America’s energy needs is on the verge of taking off with the U.S. military, but government bureaucracy is causing frustrating delays and a chokehold on funding, raising out-of-pocket expenses for the company spearheading the technology.

Bell Bio-Energy of Tifton, Ga., has developed a groundbreaking process that rapidly converts virtually anything that grows out of the Earth into all sorts of hydrocarbon fuel – from gasoline and diesel, to home heating oil and jet fuel for fighter aircraft such as the Navy’s F/A-18 Super Hornets.

An F/A-18F Super Hornet from the Diamondbacks of Strike Fighter Squadron 102 launches off the aircraft carrier USS George Washington. The Navy hopes to augment its fuel supply for Super Hornets with renewable biofuel and has dubbed its upcoming Earth Day test flight “The Green Hornet.”. (Navy photo / Marcos Vazquez)

“If we can produce this fuel [on a mass scale], this would be the greatest sea change in history for our country,” declares J.C. Bell, the project’s pioneer.

His method involves genetic manipulation to change naturally occurring bacteria, so they eat and consume biomass more quickly and efficiently, breaking down waste material from crops into usable energy.

Oil scarcity is a myth! Get the book Big Oil does not want you to read. “Black Gold Stranglehold” By Jerome Corsi
and Craig Smith

Naturally occurring bacteria used to convert biomass into fuel.

“There’s certainly nothing from a basic science point of view that’s
wrong with the idea,” said Dr. Charles Krauter, a soil and water professor
at California State University at Fresno familiar with Bell’s technique. “Obviously the process
worked. He’s just doing it in an artificial enviroment and speeding it
up. They’re not doing anything that natural microbes haven’t been doing
for 100 million years.”

...

Regarding the toll the financial situation has taken on him personally, Bell joked, “I used to look like a 20-year-old poster boy. Now I’m old and wrinkled and bald.”

He also notes the government has gone out of its way to prevent this project from receiving publicity.

“While it was operating at Fort Stewart under contract, it was kept low key at the request of the military,” he said. “It made me extremely irritated.”


http://www.wnd.com/2010/01/121955/
http://tiftongazette.com/local/x3236958 ... ion-plants
On the Windhexe: ''An engineer could not have invented this,'' Winsness says. ''As an engineer, you don't try anything that's theoretically impossible.''
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Chromium6 » Thu Sep 19, 2013 10:24 pm

Coverage of "Tight Oil". This only indicates, that along with limestone and coal, a lot of living material had to perish and decay properly on the surface of the Earth to create, in place and abundant, Oil/Gas/Hydrates/Coal/Limestone deposits mostly over the last billion of years.

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Image

Tight oil potential outside North America is huge, says study

Posted on September 19, 2013, Thursday

LONDON/HOUSTON: Commercially recoverable reserves of tight oil in the rest of the world could be double or more those of North America and the geology of the 23 best opportunities are better in some cases, according to a new study.

However, the study by analysis firm IHS warned development in newer regions would likely to be slower than in the United States as many countries could run into constraints including government policy and regulation, lack of access to specialised kit and skilled labour, and access to land.

Tight or unconventional oil requires the same hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques as shale gas.

“The global potential is really quite large and the challenges don’t just involve technology but legal frameworks and above-ground issues too,” Pete Stark, a co-author of the study, told Reuters.

The 23 highest-ranking tight oil areas identified by the study include well-documented areas such as the Vaca Muerta formation in Argentina, the Silurian ‘hot’ shales in North Africa and the Bazhenov Shale in west Siberia.

However, the list also includes lesser-known geological plays in Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Australia.

Costs for unconventional wells in tight deposits can be three or four times higher than for conventional wells.

Like shale gas, tight oil it has become a boom US industry, transforming the economy through cheaper energy and reduced reliance on imports, leading other countries to look at developing similar reserves.

The study found that more than half the global technically recoverable reserves outside North America were concentrated in just 23 of 148 potential development areas it analysed. It put the total at 300 billion barrels, with 175 billion in the top 23 areas – known as ‘plays’ in the oil and gas industry.

Commercially recoverable resources in North America have been estimated at 43 billion barrels.

The study maps the potential for ‘tight’ or unconventional oil without the benefit of well data and so estimated only what are known as ‘technically recoverable’ reserves outside North America by looking at their geological characteristics.

“The final measure of technical or commercially recoverable resources cannot be truly known until the actual well data is available,” Jan Roelofsen, IHS research director and adviser for unconventional, said in a statement.

“The potential of just the highest-ranking plays is likely double the size of North America’s resources, and that is a conservative estimate.”

Output from fracked wells are often characterised by rapid rates of decline, then steady production for about 20 years, according to IHS assumptions.

“The range of geological characteristics and risks of the 23 highest-ranking global tight oil plays compare favorably, or even better in some cases, than those of leading North American plays,” said Steve Trammel, also an IHS research director and adviser and the project leader for the study.

The IHS study puts the cost of the average well outside North America at US$8 million compared with US$5.6 million inside North America, ranging from US$6.5 million in Australia to more than US$13 million in parts of the Arabian Peninsula, said Stark. — Reuters


http://www.theborneopost.com/2013/09/19 ... ays-study/

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Rosneft's coverage of Russia's Oil deposits:
http://www.rosneft.com/attach/0/02/99/cera_week_en.pdf

--------------

Coverage on Tight Oil Formation:

http://www.findingpetroleum.com/files/e ... trenel.pdf
On the Windhexe: ''An engineer could not have invented this,'' Winsness says. ''As an engineer, you don't try anything that's theoretically impossible.''
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Chromium6 » Sat Sep 21, 2013 10:02 pm

Some coverage on the amounts in Bakken. More than it appears.

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"Bakken is almost twice as big as the oil reserve in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. " — Harold Hamm, founder & CEO, Continental Resources


How a Starving Geologist Found the Largest Oil Field in Modern History

A few years ago, a Billings petroleum geologist by the name of Dick Findley was working out of his basement, searching for oil in an area that had been barren for over 20 years.

Things were rough, and he was struggling to get by. He even flirted with the idea of getting a second job as a restaurant cook... and on a diet of nothing but Ramen Noodles and hard-boiled eggs, who could blame the guy?

But one thing kept Dick going: a conviction that this area — the Bakken oil field — held billions of barrels of recoverable light, sweet crude.

And through sheer luck, he and his partner stumbled upon a porous layer of dolomite 9,000 feet below the ground of a ranch just outside Sidney, Montana.

Image

Bakken Oil Wells: World’s Most Profitable Oil Investment

Right now, a Bakken oil well is one of the world's most profitable investments — for individual investors and oil companies alike.

So let's dig into some numbers, because I want to show you exactly why this $6 stock is about to jump 220%...

North Dakota oil drillers produced a record 152.9 million barrels of crude in 2011, up more than 35% and nearly 40 million more barrels than the previous record set a year earlier.

More than 95% of the state's oil production comes from the Bakken and Three Forks.

Almost 200 rigs are drilling in the Bakken; state and industry officials say 99% of them hit oil.

A typical Bakken oil well costs between $8 and $10 million. That includes leases, royalties, and initial operating expenses.

The average Bakken well will produce about 540,000 barrels of oil during its 29-year lifespan.

At current prices between $85 and $100 per barrel, we’re talking about a sweet $45 million in revenue for each Bakken oil well.

"We can look at each well as a driver for the economy... It's also a good investment." — Alison Ritter, Department of Mineral Resources
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And that makes new discoveries — like North Dakota’s Bakken oil field, with a confirmed 7.4 billion barrels (and as much as 24 billion barrels) of recoverable oil — pure gold for individual investors.

You see, the Bakken oil play is not new. In fact, geologists have known about it since the 1950s...

Shell Oil even tried drilling there in the 1970s, but the company wasn’t able to get enough of the high-grade light, sweet crude out of the ground to make the venture worthwhile.

The earliest estimates were that the layered shale of the Bakken Formation held a whopping 500 billion barrels of oil. But as Shell proved, getting that oil was a whole different story.

http://www.angelnexus.com/o/web/48447
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The Niobrara Shale Play – the Next Bakken?
February 2nd, 2013

Image

The Niobrara shale formation extends across northeastern Colorado, northwestern Kansas, southwestern Nebraska and southeastern Wyoming. The play ranges in thickness from 275-400 feet deep, with three primary carbonate-rich benches that average 10-25 feet thick with 5-10% porosity

To date, most of the Niobrara’s O&G development focuses on the Denver-Julesburg Basin (“DJ Basin”), with hot spots in the Wattenberg field of Weld County, Colorado, and (to a much lesser degree) Wyoming’s Silo field. Niobrara operators face unique challenges in this formation, but remain hopeful because of new estimates on overall production expectations over the next few years.

Unique Challenges for Oil & Gas

Niobrara’s geological characteristics can impede effective, economical drilling. The formation transitions from limestone to chalk to calcareous shale to sandstone, each with differing depth and thickness. Navigating drills in the thin layers is difficult, and high clay content of the formation makes it less permeable than other areas and complicates extraction.

The variable natural fracturing occurrence that results from the geological variety also impacts successful drilling. Operators seek sections that experience high natural fracture density, which are likely more productive and easier to tap, versus reservoirs with lower fracture density that yields higher water cuts and lower productivity. Early interest has yielded select highly explored drilling areas; however operators face challenges finding suitable locations for new horizontal wells that won’t interfere with existing vertical wellbores.

Water has proved an additional impediment in the Niobrara, from industry and environmental standpoints. The hydraulic fracturing process that revolutionized shale drilling requires high volumes of water. Summer 2012’s severe drought and rampant wildfires in Colorado rendered water scarce and forced O&G operators to spend more on securing access to water from the Colorado River.

Output Results Thus Far

The complexity of the Niobrara petroleum system complicates cumulative data, but estimates show that almost 2 billion barrels of oil equivalent have been produced from the Wattenberg field alone. EOG Resources’ “Jake 2-01h” drilled its first well in 2009 in northern Colorado, producing 50,000 barrels of crude oil in the first 90 days and maintaining outputs of 50,000 barrels per month. Noble Energy’s “Gemini” entered Weld County in 2010 and produced 1,100 barrels per day at its peak.

After a strong start, however, output has been less than predicted. In Weld County, for example, the first half of 2012 produced 11.5 million barrels of oil and 101.4 million cubic feet of gas. This compares to 26.5 million barrels and 238.4 million cubic feet, respectively, in 2011.

Looking Forward

Despite lower outputs than expected, interest in the Niobrara play remains high. Notably, the O&G leaders in the play are independents that plan to continue or expand their drilling and E&P programs. As of August 2012, 45 rigs were active – four more than in 2011. New estimates now say that the play is a third bigger than first thought, capable of producing as much as 3.6 billion barrels of oil over the next several years.
An ASD Report estimates that production will pass 3 billion barrels by 2020.

The table below gives a sample of independents with a stake in the Niobrara. As you can see, future plans for the play show increased production going forward.

Although the geology of Niobrara presents challenges, operators are working around them to increase production in the area, and the forecast for this shale play is expected to increase.

Clover specializes in placing professionals in the oil and gas industry. If you are an Operator seeking to augment Project Teams, contact salman.mumtaz@clovergs.com

If you are an experienced professional looking for opportunities in the Upstream Industry (Alaska, Eagle Ford Shale Play, Bakken Formation, Deepwater Gulf of Mexico), send your resume in complete confidence to christinasantos@clovergs.com

http://wyomingenergynews.com/2013/02/th ... xt-bakken/
On the Windhexe: ''An engineer could not have invented this,'' Winsness says. ''As an engineer, you don't try anything that's theoretically impossible.''
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Chromium6 » Mon Sep 23, 2013 10:24 pm

More coverage of Abiotic Methane formation... note that undersea volcanic eruptions are fairly common:

Thermogenic Methane with Secondary Alteration in Gases Released from Terrestrial Mud Volcanoes

By Ryoichi Nakada and Yoshio Takahashi
DOI: 10.5772/48232

1. Introduction

Mud volcanoes are surface expressions of mud accompanied by water and gas originated from deep underground. They are found all over the world. The locations of mud volcanoes resemble magmatic volcanoes, that is, they are concentrated in areas of compressional tectonic settings such as accretionary complexes and subduction zones (Dimitrov, 2002, 2003; Kholodov, 2002; Kopf, 2002). Recent developments in seismic exploration and seafloor imaging have led to the discovery of mud volcanoes not only onshore, but also offshore. The fact that mud volcanoes are found along the compressional area suggests that eruptions are related to the occurrence of volcanic and earthquake activity. Mud extrusion is a phenomenon wherein fluid-rich, fine-grained sediments accompanying the gases ascend within a lithologic succession through conduits from pressurized reservoirs because of their buoyancy. The factors controlling the occurrence of mud volcanoes are considered to be (i) recent tectonic activity, particularly in a compressional regime; (ii) rapid loading of rocks due to fast sedimentation, accretion, or overthrusting; (iii) active hydrocarbon generation; and (iv) existence of thick, fine-grained, soft sediments deep in the sedimentary succession (Dimitrov, 2002). The main factor in mud volcano formation is considered to be a gravitative instability in low-density sediments below high-density rocks induced by fast sedimentation.

The major differences between mud volcano and normal (magmatic) volcano are as follows: (i) mud volcano only releases, as suggested by its name, mud associated with water, whereas magmatic volcano releases ash and high-temperature lava; and (ii) most of the gases released from the former are methane (CH4), whereas the latter releases CO2 and N2, except for water vapor. With regard to difference (i), one may think that the mud volcano is not serious as a natural disaster. On the contrary, in Indonesia for example, more than 30,000 people lost their homes due to the eruption of mud (Mazzini et al., 2007). The eruption of an enormous amount of mud (170,000 m3 per day at the maximum) with the temperature close to 100 ºC buried the Sidoarjo village in Northeast Java (Mazzini et al., 2007). Thus, it is important to understand the eruption mechanism from the view of the disaster caused by the eruption. Difference (ii) is also important, considering that CH4 has a larger global warming potential than CO2 (IPCC, 2001). According to the IPCC report (2001), the global warming potential of CH4 is 62 times higher than that of CO2 in 20 years and 23 times higher in 100 years. The reported CH4 concentration released from mud volcanoes all over the world shows that CH4 dominates more than 90% for most mud volcanoes (Table 1). Furthermore, even if mud volcanoes are in the quiescent period, they constantly release gases into the atmosphere. Considering that magmatic volcanoes are not active in the quiescent period, the consecutive release of CH4 from mud volcanoes is potentially an important problem. Therefore, understanding the source, abundance, and cause of CH4 release from mud volcanoes is necessary to evaluate the global warming and potential resource as energy.

Both the concentration and CH4 flux from mud volcanoes to the atmosphere are important. Thus far, several estimates for global emission have been done, including 10.3 Tg y−1 to 12.6 Tg y−1 (Dimitrov, 2002), 5 Tg y−1 to 10 Tg y−1 (Etiope and Klusman, 2002), 5 Tg y−1 (Dimitrov, 2003), and 6 Tg y−1 to 9 Tg y−1 (Etiope and Milkov, 2004). The estimates include several assumptions that can have large uncertainty in their flux estimation because it is almost impossible to determine the quantity of CH4 released from each mud volcano on Earth. More recently, it has also been reported that gases from mud volcanoes not only originate from visible bubbling in the crater of mud volcanoes but also from soils around mud volcanoes. For example, Etiope et al. (2011) performed flux measurements from soils around mud volcanoes in Japan and showed that total output from soils is comparable with that from vents in the mud volcanoes. Their calculation suggests that global CH4 flux from mud volcanoes is between 10 and 20 Tg y−1 (Etiope et al., 2011). These estimates mean that mud volcanoes represent an important natural source of atmospheric CH4 considered in global greenhouse gas emission inventories.

Understanding the origin of CH4, namely, microbial origin from acetate fermentation, microbial from carbonate reduction, thermogenic, and inorganic, provides information on the process and environment responsible for its generation. The interpretation of the origins of gas is generally based on its stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes (δ13C and δD, respectively), and on the chemical composition of its gaseous alkanes (C1–C4; methane, ethane, propane, and butane). In particular, identifying the gas source is accomplished by plotting the stable carbon isotope ratio of C1 (δ13C1) versus the light gas composition (Bernard et al., 1978), and the δ13C1 versus δD1 (Schoell, 1983). Post-genetic alterations that can affect isotopic and molecular composition of gas should also be considered. The processes include (i) aerobic and anaerobic microbial oxidation of CH4, (ii) abiogenic oxidation, (iii) isotopic fractionation by diffusion, (iv) molecular fractionation by advection, (v) gas mixing, and (vi) anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum and secondary methanogenesis. In this respect, both the chemical and isotopic compositions of hydrocarbons and of CO2 can be useful. In this chapter, we attempt to improve our understanding of the origin of gases released from terrestrial mud volcanoes and seepages by summarizing published data. Further knowledge will allow researchers to use seepage gases as a tracer for hydrocarbon reservoirs and as an indicator of geodynamic processes, hazards, and importance in global changes.

2. Database

The database used in this chapter includes all terrestrial mud volcanoes and other seeps for which all the following parameters are reported: CH4 stable isotopes (δ13C1 and δD1), compositional ratio of hydrocarbons [C1/(C2 + C3)], and concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio of CO2. The data which satisfy these restrictions are listed in Table 1. From more than 200 data, only 27 data from five countries consisted of all five parameters: 14 mud volcanoes from Azerbaijan, 7 from China, 1 from Georgia, 2 from Japan, and 3 from Turkmenistan; all other data lacked at least one parameter (Valyaev et al., 1985; Etiope et al., 2011; Nakada et al., 2011). Numerous studies have reported on at least one of the parameters above and/or the data of gases collected from the same mud volcanoes in different periods. However, the discussion should be performed using all the parameters above reported in one study, because (i) gases released from mud volcanoes have a complicated history, including secondary alterations, and (ii) compositions and stable isotope ratio can be fluctuated with time even in the same vent. Meanwhile, data from peats, recent sediments in freshwater environments, anthropogenically induced seeps from coal mines, coal-bed CH4 production, and submarine mud volcanoes are not considered.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. THE “BERNARD” AND “SCHOELL” DIAGRAMS
All the data listed in Table 1 are plotted in the “Bernard” and “Schoell” diagrams, namely, δ13C1 versus C1/(C2 + C3) (Bernard et al., 1978; Faber and Stahl, 1984), and δ13C1 versus δD1 (Schoell, 1983). The former plot, which is widely used for the discrimination of thermogenic and microbial C1, was originally developed by Bernard et al. (1978) through their analysis of hydrocarbons from Texas shelf and slop sediments. In 1984, Faber and Stahl collected sediment samples from the North Sea and modified the Bernard plot by adding the maturation trends of type II and type III kerogen. Figure 1 shows that all the gases released from mud volcanoes in China and Japan fall within or close to the thermogenic field. One of three data in Turkmenistan also falls within the thermogenic field, while two data from Turkmenistan and Georgia are in the intermediate region of the thermogenic and microbial fields. The rest of the data, all from Azerbaijan and one-third from Turkmenistan, fall in the region A, an ambiguous sector above the thermogenic field and right to the microbial. Gases from mud volcanoes do not appear to originate from microbial activities. However, gases from mud volcanoes in Azerbaijan, Italy, Papua New Guinea, and Russia (Taman Peninsula) fall in the microbial area (Valyaev et al., 1985; Baylis et al., 1997; Etiope et al., 2007). The data listed in Table 1 are selected ones that show all five parameters described in the previous section. Hence, the data lacking in other parameters, such as δD1 or δ13CCO2, are not considered in the present work. Then, it should be noted that not all the gases released from mud volcanoes are of thermogenic origin.


4. Summary

Terrestrial mud volcanoes release a dominant abundance of thermogenic CH4 related to the activities in relatively deep reservoirs, most of which are in petroleum seepage systems. Maturated petroleum associated with gas and water pressurizes the reservoir, causing gas and water to ascend preferentially through faults (Nakada et al., 2011). Some post-genetic secondary processes can alter the chemical and isotopic composition of the gases. Among these processes, some mixing, molecular fractionation, and particularly, secondary methanogenesis related to subsurface biodegradation of petroleum seem to be significant in changing the chemical and isotopic composition of gases released from mud volcanoes. Mud volcanoes show highly variable δ13CCO2 values even within the same mud volcanoes, such that 13C-enriched CO2 can be found in some vents and not in others nearby, or not systematically changed in the same vent, meaning that 13C-enriched CO2 is, therefore, not an uncommon characteristic. The association of anaerobic biodegradation can depend on the type of microbial communities and physicochemical conditions of the reservoir.

Acknowledgement

R. N. is a Research Fellow of the Japan Society of the Promotion of Science. We thank Prof. Guodong Zheng (Chinese Academy of Sciences) for his suggestions throughout this study.


http://www.intechopen.com/books/hydroca ... -volcanoes
On the Windhexe: ''An engineer could not have invented this,'' Winsness says. ''As an engineer, you don't try anything that's theoretically impossible.''
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Anaconda » Thu Sep 26, 2013 7:54 am

Pakistan quake island off Gwadar 'emits flammable gas', September 25, 2013 (BBC)

Barely half an hour after they were jolted by a major earthquake on Tuesday, people of the Pakistani coastal town of Gwadar had another shock when they saw a new island emerge in the sea, just over a kilometre from the shore.


[...]

"There were dead fish on the surface. And on one side we could hear the hissing sound of the escaping gas," Mr Baloch said.

Although they couldn't smell gas, they did put a match to the fissures from where it was oozing, and set it on fire.

"We put the fire out in the end, but it was quite a hassle. Not even the water could kill it, unless one poured buckets over it."


[...]

About 700km from east to west, the Makran coast is characterised by high seismic activity, and is home to several hills called mud volcanoes, having craters at the top from which methane gas seeps.

These volcanoes are located inland, and have been there for a long time. But similar formations that emerge offshore are usually washed away by the sea.

Geologists say it is part of the continuing process of continental drift, or the drift of land mass across the oceans that brought the Indian sub-continent to collide with Eurasia and created the fault-lines, some of which run through the Makran coast.


http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-24272552

Eugene Coste wrote:The oil- and gas-fields are located along the faulted and fissured zones of the crust of the earth, parallel to the great orogenic and volcanic dislocations.


Eugene Coste was an early advocate for abiotic formation of hydrocarbons, active in Canada at the beginning of the 20th century.

Stanley B. Keith wrote:Evidence is mounting that the Earth is encircled by subtle necklaces of interconnecting, generally latitude-parallel faults. Many major mineral and energy resource accumulations are located within or near the deeply penetrating fractures of these “cracks of the world.”


Stanley B. Keith is an economic geologist (valuable minerals) who has authored several abiotic hydrocarbon scientific papers.

The above quote is from Keith's presentation, Cracks of the World: Global Strike-Slip Fault Systems and Giant Resource Accumulations, by Stanley B. Keith (2004), to the Houston Geological Society (link has gone inoperable).

The BBC article claims the gas from the new island is from gas hydrates embedded in the seabed:

"The seabed near the Makran coast has vast deposits of gas hydrates, or frozen gas having a large methane content," he explained.

"These deposits lay compressed under a sediment bed that is 300m-800m thick."


This is a possible source that can't be dismissed out of hand.

But note that the same BBC article identifies mud volcanoes on land in nearby coastal areas. Mud volcanoes which have been in the vicinity for hundreds of years and producing natural gas. Surely, these mud volcanoes would have exhausted supplies of gas hydrates if the gas hydrates were only the result of biotic breakdown and formation from organic detritus.
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Chromium6 » Sat Sep 28, 2013 11:00 am

Hi Anaconda,

I just reread your scribd link below from last year on page 42. Indeed a perfect introduction.

viewtopic.php?f=4&t=2150


A paper by Stanley B. Keith is also there:
http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/docum ... /keith.htm

Direct evidence for hydrothermal hydrocarbons continues to mount. Some of the more relevant observations include:

Hydrothermal dolomite (HTD) not only hosts hydrocarbons, but has trapped hydrocarbons during its deposition under hot hydrothermal conditions (100-200 C) (for example Hulen and others, 1994 at Railroad Valley, Nevada). HTD is associated with large oil and gas accumulations including the supergiant Ghawar field in Saudi Arabia (Cantrell and others, 2001).

Geochemistry of hydrocarbons, experimental work, and mass-balance calculations have identified the fluids that produce HTD as hot, strongly-reduced, hydrocarbon-rich chloride and/or bicarbonate brines containing elements exotic to basins such as Mg, Fe, Ni, V, Se, Co, and Zn. Indeed, many oil field brines may represent the original hydrothermal carrier fluid for reservoir hydrocarbons.

Virtually all oil is now known to contain nanodiamond particles and their diamondoid overgrowths. Nanodiamond presence strongly suggests a high-pressure, high-temperature origin at some point in the generation, migration, and deposition of the hydrocarbon (Dahl and others, 2003 a and b).

Thermogenic abiogenic low-C number hydrocarbon gases (mainly methane) have been experimentally produced under hydrothermal conditions that simulate serpentinization of a peridotite source (Berndt and others, 1996; Horita and Berndt, 1999). Ultrathermogenic methane has also been produced experimentally by reacting magnetite, calcite, and water in a diamond anvil high-pressure apparatus under mantle pressures and temperatures (Science News, 2004).

Oil has been shown to produce copious amounts of catalytic gas by heating above 130 C in the presence of native metals such as Fe, Ni, and Co. The rates of reaction are geologically instantaneous and easily fit within the lifespan of a hydrothermal plume system (Mango, and others, 1994).
Humans have been unintentionally modeling and producing gasoline under hydrothermal hydrocarbon conditions for decades. Starting in the Second World War industrial scale ‘hydrothermal’ gasolines have been produced by injecting hydrogen into hot carbon oxides produced from pyrolysis of coal cokes and subsequently cooling and condensing the hydrothermal mixture across a metalliferous (native metal) catalytic interface (Fischer-Tropsch process, see Szatmari, 1989).

Large methane-charged hydrothermal seepages have been recently discovered in oceanic transform environments such as the Lost City ‘white smoker’ field in the central Atlantic (Kelley and others, 2001, Fruh-Green, 2004). These seepage phenomena provide evidence that serpentine-sourced, crustal-scale hydrocarbon systems may breach the lithosphere. Where they do so, at a subaqueous interface, they may furnish inorganic hydrocarbon, metal, and other chemical exhalative material for black shale accumulations. Indeed, hydrocarbons generated by this process may still be replenishing producing reservoirs (for example, the Eugene Island 300 reservoir in the deep Gulf of Mexico).



I particularly liked this quote:

Sir Fred Hoyle (1915-2001)

“The suggestion that petroleum might have arisen from some transformation of squashed fish or biological detritus is surely the silliest notion to have been entertained by substantial numbers of persons over an extended period of time.” — Sir Fred Hoyle, 1982


Cheers,
Chromium6

---------------------------------------------


Anaconda wrote:Chromium6,

The following document (previously linked on this board) is perhaps the best one link summary I have seen on the internet for the scientific facts & evidence supporting Abiotic Oil Theory (perfect for linking in discussion & debate):

Inorganic Origin of Petroleum

http://www.scribd.com/doc/55489859/Inor ... eum-Origin

Among the facts & evidence reported in the document:

General history of the two rival theories of petroleum formation

Russian development of Abiotic Oil Theory

Thomas Gold and his popularizing of Abiotic Oil Theory in the West

Super Giant oil fields above fractures and faults in the Earth's crust

Kudryavtsev's Rule

Methane and extraterrestrial hydrocarbons

Oil deposits extracted from crystalline basement (bedrock)

Presence of helium in oil deposits

Presence of trace elements and associated metals in oil deposits -- deep crust & shallow mantel, abiotic markers

Presence of diamondoids in oil

Serpentinization and chemical synthesis of oil - Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

Association of oil with deep & large geological structures (faults & fractures)

Again, the above document is an excellent "eye opener" for people unfamiliar with Abiotic Oil Theory.
On the Windhexe: ''An engineer could not have invented this,'' Winsness says. ''As an engineer, you don't try anything that's theoretically impossible.''
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