Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Historic planetary instability and catastrophe. Evidence for electrical scarring on planets and moons. Electrical events in today's solar system. Electric Earth.

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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Chromium6 » Sat Aug 31, 2013 9:48 pm

Process for Converting Kerogen into Petroleum by Thermo-Chemical Means

http://ceri-mines.org/documents/28thsymposium/presentations08/PRES%2012-1%20Zwick%20Dwight.pps%20%5BRead-Only%5D.pdf

In Situ Conversion of Oil Shale Kerogen
(Microwave Conversion)
http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/EPAct2005/Research_Program/Projects/In_Situ_Conversion.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shell_in_situ_conversion_process

IN-SITU KEROGEN CONVERSION AND RECOVERY

Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2012/088476

Abstract:

Disclosed herein are methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations. These methods rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen using a chemical oxidant so as to render it mobile. The oxidant is provided to a formation fluid in contact with the kerogen in the subsurface shale. An alkaline material is also provided to the formation fluid to mobilize organic acids which are produced during oxidation of the kerogen. A mobile kerogen-based product which includes the organic acids is withdrawn from the subsurface shale formation and further processed to isolate the organic acids contained therein. An exemplary method for isolating the acids includes treating the mobile kerogen- based product such that at least a portion of the organic acids form a separate phase from the mobile kerogen-based product. The organic acids may further be extracted from the mobile kerogen-based product using an organic extraction fluid. The isolated organic acids can be upgraded by a reaction process that make the products suitable as refinery feedstocks, fuel or lubricant blendstocks, reaction intermediates, chemical feedstocks, or chemical intermediate blendstocks.


http://www.sumobrain.com/patents/wipo/I ... 8476A2.pdf
http://www.sumobrain.com/patents/wipo/I ... 88476.html

IN-SITU KEROGEN CONVERSION AND RECOVERY

BACKGROUND

[0001] If proponents of Hubbert peak theory are correct, world oil production will soon peak, if it has not done so already. Regardless, world energy consumption continues to rise at a rate that outpaces new oil discoveries. As a result, alternative sources of energy must be developed, as well as new technologies for maximizing the production and efficient consumption of oil. See T. Mast, Over a Barrel: A Simple Guide to the Oil Shortage, Greenleaf Book Group, Austin, Tex., 2005.

[0002] A particularly attractive alternative source of energy is oil shale, the attractiveness stemming primarily from the fact that oil can be "extracted" from the shale and subsequently refined in a manner much like that of crude oil. Technologies involving the extraction, however, must be further developed before oil shale becomes a commercially-viable source of energy. See J. T. Bartis et al, Oil Shale Development in the United States: Prospects and Policy Issues, RAND Corporation, Arlington, Va., 2005.

[0003] The largest known deposits of oil shale are found in the Green River Formation, which covers portions of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. Estimates on the amount of recoverable oil from the Green River Formation deposits are as high as 1.1 trillion barrels of oil— almost four times the proven oil reserves of Saudi Arabia. At current U.S. consumption levels (~20 million barrels per day), these shale deposits could sustain the U.S. for another 140 years (Bartis et al.) At the very least, such shale resources could moderate the price of oil and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

[0004] Oil shale typically consists of an inorganic component (primarily carbonaceous material, i.e., a carbonate), an organic component (kerogen) that can only be mobilized by breaking the chemical bonds in the kerogen, and frequently a second organic component (bitumen). Thermal treatment can be employed to break (i.e., "crack") the kerogen into hydrocarbon chains or fragments, which are gas or liquids under retort conditions, and facilitate separation from the inorganic material. This thermal treatment of the kerogen is also known as "thermal upgrading" or "retorting," and can be done at either the surface or in situ, where in the latter case, the fluids so formed are subsequently transported to the surface.

[0005] In some applications of surface retorting, the oil shale is first mined or excavated, and once at the surface, the oil shale is crushed and then heated (retorted) to complete the process of transforming the oil shale to a crude oil— sometimes referred to as "shale oil." See, e.g., Shuman et al, U.S. Pat. No. 3,489,672. The crude oil is then shipped off to a refinery where it typically requires additional processing steps (beyond that of traditional crude oil) prior to making finished products such as gasoline, lubricant, etc. Note that various chemical upgrading treatments can also be performed on the shale prior to the retorting, See, e.g., So et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,091,076.

[0006] A method for in situ retorting of carbonaceous deposits such as oil shale has been described in Kvapil et al, U.S. Pat. No. 4, 162,808. In this method, shale is retorted in a series of rubblized in situ retorts using combustion (in air) of carbonaceous material as a source of heat.

[0007] The Shell Oil Company has been developing new methods that use electrical heating for the in situ upgrading of subsurface hydrocarbons, primarily in subsurface formations located approximately 200 miles (320 km) west of Denver, Colo. See, e.g., Vinegar et al, U.S. Pat. No. 7, 121,342; and Berchenko et al, U.S. Pat. No. 6,991,032. In such methods, a heating element is lowered into a well and allowed to heat the kerogen over a period of approximately four years, slowly converting (upgrading) it into oils and gases, which are then pumped to the surface. To obtain even heating, 15 to 25 heating holes could be drilled per acre. Additionally, a ground-freezing technology to establish an underground barrier around the perimeter of the extraction zone is also envisioned to prevent groundwater from entering and the retorting products from leaving. While the establishment of "freeze walls" is an accepted practice in civil engineering, its application to oil shale recovery still has unknown environmental impacts. Additionally, the Shell approach is recognized as an energy intensive process and requires a long timeframe to establish production from the oil shale.

[0008] In view of the aforementioned limitations of the above methods, simpler and more cost-effective methods of extracting the kerogen from the shale would be extremely useful.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0009] The present invention is directed to a process for producing mobile products from the organic matter that occurs in subsurface oil shale. Among other factors, the process is based on the discovery that kerogen in oil shale can be made to react at temperatures below pyrolysis temperatures to produce mobile reaction products that can be removed from the subsurface shale formation, isolated in surface facilities and upgraded to produce useful products, refinery feedstocks, fuel and lubricant blendstocks, reaction intermediates and the like. The process for extracting a kerogen-based product from a subsurface shale formation comprises the following steps: providing an oxidant to kerogen in subsurface shale; contacting the kerogen in the subsurface shale with the oxidant at a temperature in the range from 0°C and 200°C to form organic acids; and mobilizing at least a portion of the organic acids from the subsurface shale to produce a mobile kerogen-based product.

[0010] Further to the invention is a process for extracting a kerogen-based product from a subsurface shale formation comprising subsurface shale, the process comprising the steps of: providing an oxidant to a fluid in a subsurface shale formation that contains kerogen, to produce a formation fluid; contacting the kerogen in the subsurface shale with the formation fluid at a temperature in the range of between 0°C and 200°C to form organic acids; providing an alkaline material to the formation fluid to form a mobile kerogen-based product that contains organic acids; recovering at least a portion of the mobile kerogen-based product from the subsurface shale formation; and isolating at least a portion of the organic acids from the mobile kerogen-based product.

[0011] The composition of the formation fluid is tailored by providing an oxidant to the fluid. In one embodiment, the process comprises providing a reactive fluid containing the oxidant to the formation. In one embodiment, the formation fluid contains in the range from 0.1 wt. % to 40 wt. % of the oxidant.

[0012] In one embodiment, the formation fluid is further tailored for mobilizing at least a portion of the organic acid reaction products from the kerogen conversion reactions. In one embodiment, the formation fluid which is tailored for mobilizing the products has a pH of at least 7. In one embodiment, the high pH formation fluid comprises an alkaline material selected from the group consisting of a carbonate, a bicarbonate, an oxide and a hydroxide. In one embodiment, the alkaline material is supplied to the formation fluid by a reactive fluid

[0013] One or more oxidants are provided to the formation fluid for converting the kerogen. In general, the oxidant is selected for its reactivity for conversion of organic materials in the shale at low temperatures. In general, reaction temperature is in the range from 0°C to 200°C.

[0014] At least a portion of the organic acids that are produced are in the C 35+ range. In one embodiment, at least 50 wt. % of the organic acids in the mobile kerogen-based product is in the C 35+ range. Furthermore, at least 20 wt. % of the C 35- organic acids in the mobile kerogen-based product is in the Cs to C 12 range.

[0015] Further to the invention is the discovery that the mobile reaction products that are produced during the kerogen conversion reactions are organic acids. Accordingly, the process includes a step of isolating at least a portion of the organic acids. Accordingly, the process includes a step of isolating at least a portion of the organic acids. The process for extracting a kerogen-based product from a subsurface shale formation comprises: providing an oxidant to kerogen in subsurface shale; contacting the kerogen in the subsurface shale with the oxidant at a temperature in the range of between 0°C and 200°C to form organic acids; mobilizing at least a portion of the organic acids from the subsurface shale to produce a mobile kerogen-based product; and isolating at least a portion of the organic acids from the mobile kerogen-based product.

[0016] In one embodiment, the process comprises treating the mobile kerogen-based product at a pH such that at least a portion of the organic acids form a separate phase from the mobile kerogen-based product. Exemplary processes include treating the mobile kerogen-based product at a pH in the range from 7 to 12, or at a pH in the range from 1.5 to 7.

[0017] In one embodiment, the process comprises contacting the mobile kerogen-based product with an organic extraction fluid; extracting at least a portion of the organic acids into the organic extraction fluid; and recovering an acid rich extraction fluid. In one embodiment, the process further comprises isolating at least a portion of the organic acids from the acid rich extraction fluid.

[0018] The invention is also directed to an integrated process for extracting a kerogen-based product from a subsurface shale formation comprising subsurface shale, the process comprising: providing an oxidant to kerogen in subsurface shale; contacting the kerogen in the subsurface shale with the oxidant at a temperature in the range of between 0°C and 200°C to form organic acids; mobilizing at least a portion of the organic acids from the subsurface shale to produce a first mobile kerogen-based product; treating the first mobile kerogen-based product at a pH in a range from 7 to 12, isolating at least a portion of the organic acids contained therein, and recovering a second mobile kerogen-based product; treating the second mobile kerogen-based product at a pH in the range from 1.5 to 7, isolating at least a portion of the organic acids contained therein, and recovering a third mobile kerogen-based product; and treating the third mobile kerogen-based product to isolate at least a portion of the organic acids contained therein, and recovering an organic acid lean aqueous fluid.

[0019] Further to the invention is the discovery that the organic acids can be isolated and then upgraded. Accordingly, the process includes a step of upgrading at least a portion of the organic acids. The process for increasing the value of a kerogen-based product from a subsurface shale formation comprises: providing an oxidant to kerogen in subsurface shale at a temperature in the range from 0 °C to 200°C and recovering a mobile kerogen-based product comprising organic acids therefrom; isolating at least a portion of the organic acids from the mobile kerogen-based product; and upgrading the isolated organic acids. In one embodiment, the process further comprises isolating at least a portion of the organic acids from the mobile kerogen-based product by employing an process selected from the group consisting of pH titration, fractional neutralization, esterification, extraction, distillation, membrane separation, froth flotation, phase separation, electrostatic separation, filtering, centrifugal separation, coalescence, precipitation, thermal separation, steam distillation, and any combination thereof, in any order.

[0020] In one embodiment, the process comprises isolating C2 0 + organic acids and C2 0 - organic acids from the mobile kerogen-based product, and cracking at least a portion of the C2 0 + organic acids in a cracking process. In a further embodiment, C2 0 - hydrocarbon products from the cracking process are upgraded using a process selected from the group consisting hydroprocessing, hydrogenation, saturation, hydrotreating, hydrocracking, isomerization, fluid catalytic cracking, thermal cracking, esterification, oligomerization, reforming, alkylation, denitrification, desulfurization, and combinations thereof.

[0021] In another embodiment, the process comprises isolating C35+ organic acids and C35- organic acids from the mobile kerogen-based product, and cracking at least a portion of the C35+ organic acids in a cracking process. The C35- hydrocarbon products from the cracking process are upgraded using a process selected from the group consisting hydroprocessing, hydrogenation, saturation, hydrotreating, hydrocracking, isomerization, fluid catalytic cracking, thermal cracking, esterification, oligomerization, reforming, alkylation, denitrification, desulfurization, and combinations thereof.

[0022] Further to the invention is the discovery that in addition to these organic acids being valuable as hydrocarbon products for creating commercial products, a portion of the organic acids can also be used in the process for extracting the kerogen-based product from the subsurface shale formation. In particular, during separation and isolation, C1 0 + organic acids can be obtained and converted into valuable hydrocarbon products. During separation and isolation an organic acid lean fluid comprising C2 to C 10 organic acids can also be isolated. This fraction has properties that make it desirable to use in the process for extracting the kerogen-based product. Using a portion of the organic acids created creates integration in the process and this integration provides benefits of increased yield, increased efficiencies, and reduced cost.

[0023] As such in one embodiment is provided an integrated process for extracting a kerogen-based product from a subsurface shale formation comprising kerogen in an inorganic matrix. The integrated process comprises (a) providing an oxidant to the kerogen in the subsurface shale formation; (b) contacting the kerogen in the subsurface shale formation with the oxidant at a temperature in the range from 0°C and 200°C to form organic acids; (c) mobilizing at least a portion of the organic acids as organic acid reaction products from the subsurface shale to produce a mobile kerogen-based product; (d) treating the mobile kerogen- based product to provide a product stream comprising C 12 and higher organic acids and an organic acid lean fluid comprising C 2 to C 10 organic acids; and (e) recycling the organic acid lean fluid to the subsurface shale formation.

[0024] In another embodiment the integrated process for extracting a kerogen-based product from a subsurface shale formation comprising kerogen in an inorganic matrix comprises (a) providing an oxidant to the kerogen in the subsurface shale formation; (b) contacting the kerogen in the subsurface shale formation with the oxidant at a temperature in the range from 0°C and 200°C to form organic acids; (c) mobilizing at least a portion of the organic acids as organic acid reaction products from the subsurface shale to produce a mobile kerogen-based product; (d) treating the mobile kerogen-based product to provide a product stream comprising C 12 and higher organic acids and an organic acid lean fluid comprising C 2 to Cio organic acids; (e) combining the organic acid lean fluid comprising C 2 to C 10 organic acids with an oxidant to provide a recycling fluid; and (f) recycling the recycle fluid to the subsurface shale formation and contacting the kerogen in the subsurface shale formation with the oxidant in the recycle fluid.

[0025] In a further embodiment the integrated process for extracting a kerogen-based product from a subsurface shale formation comprising kerogen in an inorganic matrix comprises (a) providing an oxidant to the kerogen in the subsurface shale formation; (b) contacting the kerogen in the subsurface shale formation with the oxidant at a temperature in the range from 0°C and 200°C to form organic acids; (c) mobilizing at least a portion of the organic acids as organic acid reaction products from the subsurface shale to produce a mobile kerogen-based product; (d) treating the mobile kerogen-based product to provide a product stream comprising C 12 and higher organic acids and an organic acid lean fluid comprising C 2 to Cio organic acids; (e) isolating the organic acid lean fluid comprising C 2 to C 10 organic acids as a recycling fluid; and (f) recycling the recycle fluid to the subsurface shale formation and mobilizing at least a portion of the organic acids as organic acid reaction products to produce a mobile kerogen-based product. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0026] Fig. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an exemplary sequence of steps involving the provision of a reactive fluid to a subsurface shale formation that contains kerogen, the recovery of a mobile kerogen-based product from the formation and the isolation of organic acid products from the mobile kerogen-based product.

[0027] Fig. 2 is a block diagram illustrating the added step of passing an organic extraction fluid to the mobile kerogen-based product for extracting at least a portion of the organic acids contained in the mobile kerogen-based product.

[0028] Fig. 3 is a block diagram illustrating an exemplary sequence of steps involving the provision of a reactive fluid to a subsurface shale formation that contains kerogen, the further provision of an extractive fluid for mobilizing organic acids that are generated from kerogen reactions, the recovery of a mobile kerogen-based product from the formation and the isolation of organic acid products from the mobile kerogen-based product.

[0029] Fig. 4 illustrates carbon chain-size distribution of low molecular weight acids in kerogen permanganate oxidation products determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

[0030] Fig. 5 illustrates carbon chain-size distribution of hydrocarbon products formed by pyrolysis of high molecular weight organic acids in kerogen permanganate oxidation products determined by pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

[0031] Fig. 6 is a block diagram illustrating an embodiment of the process for isolating organic acids from the product in which they are produced from the kerogen in the subsurface shale. Fig. 6 further illustrates upgrading the organic acids in the preparation of the organic acids as finished products, as feedstocks or as blendstocks.
On the Windhexe: ''An engineer could not have invented this,'' Winsness says. ''As an engineer, you don't try anything that's theoretically impossible.''
Chromium6
 
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Chromium6 » Mon Sep 02, 2013 12:55 pm

(Don't mean to over-post on this thread. -Chr.)

Found this company out of Australia selling commercial Windhexe grinders for Oil-Gas/Coal all run from out of a shipping container. Could be useful for breaking down hydrocarbons from sources like Kerogen/bitumen. 250 tons per hour for grinding. :


Welcome to DevourX


DevourX is a dynamic technology innovation which is at the leading edge of a new "industrial revolution" where most of the machinery we know today will be superseded by far more efficient and ecologically friendly machinery, inspired by nature.

DevourX machines replicate nature by reproducing the forces of a tornado or cyclone. Solid material is turned to dust and moisture content is reduced simultaneously, without mechanical action.

By utilizing an ingenious technology known as "Aeroacoustics", DevourX machines process without contact, material flows within an air stream caused by voracious suction. Material particle size is reduced by a combination of simultaneous physical events caused by pressure, vacuum and sound waves.

Applications


DevourX is suitable for most fine grinding and mixing applications in mining, quarrying, cement production, food processing, power generation, gassification, ingredient processing, farming and in the manufacture of cosmetics, paint, chemicals and pharmaceuticals. It performs these processing tasks at substantially less cost and with higher efficiency than conventional equipment.

Benefits

DevourX is the most effective and efficient fine grinding system available today. Some of the many financial and ecological benefits of DevourX are:

    Higher processing efficiency
    Reduction in processing costs
    Reduction in energy consumption
    Reduction in maintenance and servicing of equipment
    Reduction in space requirements
    The elimination of many handling issues
    Significant savings in capital construction costs
    Reduces moisture without heat
    Eliminates pathogens and odour
    Maintains nutritional integrity in processed foodstuff

Video of action:
http://www.devourx.com/videos


Appears they are using sound dampening tech below:

DevourX machines replicate nature by reproducing the forces of a tornado or cyclone. The cyclonic power is controlled and can be harnessed for numerous purposes.

Although purpose built for fine grinding applications, it is suitable for most applications where mechanical hammers or crushers are presently used and can also be used to remove moisture from material.

The DevourX machines are installed in 40 foot shipping containers and the extreme noise generated by processing and crushing of rock provided significant acoustic challenges.

Acoustica® were consulted by DevourX who developed a special product that was installed on the internal surfaces of the container.

Acoustica® also supplies to DevourX customers a special acoustic insulation system for feed hoppers and piping to the DevourX containerised machine.


http://www.acoustica.us/acousticainminin.html
On the Windhexe: ''An engineer could not have invented this,'' Winsness says. ''As an engineer, you don't try anything that's theoretically impossible.''
Chromium6
 
Posts: 537
Joined: Mon Nov 07, 2011 5:48 pm

Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Chromium6 » Wed Sep 04, 2013 8:17 pm

Just wanted to revisit Velocys' Microreactors with DevourX's modular grinder:

-------
Little Big Tech: Can Fischer-Tropsch technology work at smaller scale?
Jim Lane | November 20, 2012

Can small-scale micro-rectors provide economic alternatives to massive F-T plants like Shell's Pearl GTL plant in Qatar

While companies pursue alternatives to Fischer-Tropsch technologies, Velocys is seeking to make F-T work economically with micro-reactors.

In last week’s Digest, Robert Rapier aptly stated the challenge in front of XTL technologies – companies whose primary focus is gas-to-liquids (GTL), coal-to-liquids (CTL), or biomass-to-liquids (BTL):

“The two major problems with any of the XTL technologies are that capital costs are extremely high, and a long-term, cheap feedstock supply must be secured. Shell’s initial estimate for the [Pearl GTL plant in Qatar] was $5 billion, but by the time the project was completed the costs were estimated to be around $20 billion.”

The problem that underlies both challenges – scale. Shell’s Pearl GTL plant in Ras Laffan operates at a scale of 140,000 barrels per day. That drives the large capital costs, but ensures that biomass has a tough time working within traditional Fischer-Tropsch technology – an approach that converts a synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

The high cost of shipping biomass

F-T has been looked at many times over the years, but the cost of shipping biomass simply skyrockets due to the increased cost of shipping and logistics with feedstock aggregation.

For that reason, there has been quite a bit of attention paid in the Digest to technologies that offer alternative routes to F-T, while still working with syngas made from gasifying biomass. Coskata, LanzaTech, Cool Planet, INEOS Bio, KiOR, Ensyn and Enerkem are just a few of the better-known alternatives – working with thermochemical processes such as fast pyrolysis, or gas fermentation.

But there’s another approach that might work – making F-T itself work at smaller scale. Rentech has been working hard on that approach.

Micro-reactors

One technology worth watching: the microchannel Fischer-Tropsch reactors and catalysts developed by Velocys, a subsidiary of Oxford Catalysts Group.

According to Velocys, microchannel technology is able to intensify the FT process to the extent that a plant of 500 barrels per day output (7.6 million gallons per year) can be economic, which would require around 500 tonnes per day of biomass. That’s not far off the biomass requirements of the small commercial plant that KiOR has just commissioned in Columbus, Mississippi – and also in the ballpark of Ensyn’s preferred 400 ton-per-day reference design.

The opportunities for microchannel FT reactors and catalysts, these days, also stretch, in the US, as a way to play cheap natural gas.

As Velocys points out:

“Without this new approach, these energy resources such as shale gas, tight gas, coal-bed methane, and stranded gas (gas fields located too far from existing pipeline infrastructure) would often be left underground. Distributed GTL plants require both technology that is economic at a scale of 1,000 – 15,000 barrels per day (bpd), and a modular construction approach to overcome logistical challenges, for example the difficulties associated with building in remote locations. Modular construction allows most of the fabrication to be done in a controlled factory environment, minimizing the work in the field.”


Modular construction

In terms of modular construction, Velocys has signed with Ventech Engineers International, which specializes in the design and construction of modular refineries. 

Under the terms of the collaboration agreement, Ventech will design, sell and deliver GTL plants incorporating Velocys’ microchannel FT reactors to customers in North America – and placed an order for the first 1400 barrel per day modular GTL plant. Furthermore, through Ventech Project Investments LP, Ventech has $200 million in available capital to make equity investments in energy projects, and expects to co-invest in initial customer GTL plants.

This is the distributed approach – large numbers of small-scale facilities, as opposed to monster-scale refineries. And, in those areas of the world where cheap natural gas is, for now, a pipe(line) dream – distributed biomass-to-liquid may well be the preferred approach.

Velocys contends that distributed BTL also can enable the reuse of a broad variety of carbon containing waste, and recycle that biomass to a highly fungible, high quality product, which will also help to satisfy the demands of both landfill avoidance and biofuels mandates around the world.

“Imagine a distributed BTL facility at the waste processing facility of every large town or city, anywhere in the world,” the company says, “and the production of a fuel that can be used by the local community or sold for its economic benefit. Meaning that an abundant resource in many oil-deficient but fuel-hungry nations can be used for transportation.”

The Bottom Line

Every airline passenger or email recipient knows the drill: “use caution when opening”. Technologies that look great on paper may not work in a) a given geography b) with an inferior cost of capital or c) when operated in the unruly real world as opposed to the pristine lab.

Nevertheless, Velocys’ technology is well worth a look when it comes to evaluating technologies in the 400-600 tons per day range, for biomass. With all gasification technologies there are challenges – in addition to producing liquid fuel, there is char and gas production – but the opportunities to make smaller-scale biomass resources economic should not be discounted.

http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2 ... ler-scale/
On the Windhexe: ''An engineer could not have invented this,'' Winsness says. ''As an engineer, you don't try anything that's theoretically impossible.''
Chromium6
 
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby sureshbansal342 » Thu Sep 05, 2013 1:32 am

it is true that kerogen has been derived from organic rich sedimentary rocks but there is no solid reason that it has been formed from deceased organic matter. can any one show me ant scientific paper proving this.kerogen has been derived only from those organic sedimentary rocks which has been formed with pre generated abiotic hydrocarbon bearing sludge otherwise dry holes. abiotic sources are the major contributor of global hydrocarbons, even in commercial interesting hydrocarbons accumulations. yes, biotic characteristics has been injected in it in the burial history of organic matter and abiotic hydrocarbon bearing sludge ( once present on the surface of the earth and has been reburied after mixing with the organic matter).
sureshbansal342
 
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby sureshbansal342 » Fri Sep 06, 2013 12:44 am

Please find the discussion of ORIGIN OF PETROLEUM at AAPG.
http://www.linkedin.com/groupAnswers?vi ... CGWf5salU1
sureshbansal342
 
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Chromium6 » Sat Sep 07, 2013 9:23 am

Well sureshbansal342, if anyone gives push back by stating it must be only "ancient algae-swamp-dinosaur mush" creating Oil/NG etc. Then give them Kutcherov's paper, and book if necessary, before initiating the debate. He worked with J.F. Kenney -- the pioneer that Bob Dobbs and others have mentioned previously on this thread:

http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/41889/In ... mation.pdf

Abiogenic Deep Origin of Hydrocarbons and Oil and Gas Deposits Formation
Vladimir G. Kutcherov

Kenney, J. F., V. G. Kutcherov, N. A. Bendeliani, and V. A. Alekseev (2002), The evolution of
multicomponent systems at high pressures: YI. The thermodynamic stability of the
hydrogen-carbon system: The genesis of hydrocarbons and the origin of petroleum,
Proceedings of the Nat. Acad. Sci, 99, 17, 10976-10981.
On the Windhexe: ''An engineer could not have invented this,'' Winsness says. ''As an engineer, you don't try anything that's theoretically impossible.''
Chromium6
 
Posts: 537
Joined: Mon Nov 07, 2011 5:48 pm

Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby moot » Sat Sep 07, 2013 11:02 am

Hi,I apologize for not being to scientific with my first post here but I saw this doc a few years back.I left a lasting impression.
I thought it would fit well in this thread.
It gives theory to the origins of oil and the history behind earth cycles.
Please watch...Crude - The Incredible Journey Of Oil .

http://youtu.be/cPgfnwi2m9M
moot
 
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Chromium6 » Sat Sep 07, 2013 12:18 pm

Here's an abstract on Chinese abiotic Oil:
-------------

The Characteristics of the Volcanic Abiogenic hydrocarbons reservoir in Songliao Basin,China

Shengguang Zhuo, Xianbin Wang, And Guifang Yang

Northeast University
at Qinhuangdao, China.
zoe200200@163.com
(* presenting author)

Key Lab, CAS,Lanzhou,China
xbwang@lzb.ac.cn

Northeast Petroleum University at
Qinhuangdao,China y-2000@163.com


Introduction

The natural gas reserves of Xushen gas field in Songliao Basin, China, is about Hundreds of millions of cubic meters , and the reserves of volcanic reservoirs is 89.8 % [1] , generally the nature gas has abiogenic alkane gases characteristcs [2].

Volcanic lithofacies and volcanic genesis

Cretaceous Yingcheng formation is rich in volcanic rock in Songliao Basin,China. Volcanic lithofacies consist of eight types.
Such as fallout facies, effusion facies, base surges facies, pyroclastics flow facies, lahar facies, eruption-sedimentary facies, sub-volcanic rock facis and sub explosive breccia facies. The lithology of volcanic rock is mainly middle acid volcanic rock(dacite, rhyolite, middle acid brecciated tuff and tuff), belonging to the calc-alkaline series of sub-alkaline series.

Volcanic reservoir conditions

The eruptive and overflow facies have better reservoir condition that has largely been affected by volcanic condensation diagenesis,tectonism, solution and fluid activity, and the volcanic rocks reservoir commonly with the porosity of 6.3%~10.8 % a nd permeability of about 0.55×10 - 3 µm 2 ~122.0×10 - 3 µm 2.
The most of effective reservoir are the upper phase or external phase of volcanic facies belts, usually being layers or thin layers of 10 ~ 20m. The pore types of volcanic reservoir The pores of volcanic reservoir could be classified into four types:

1 primary pores of original rocks,
2 diagenetic pores,
3 diagenetic fractures,
4 secondary tectoclases and weathered fractures.

Conclusion


Diagenetic pores and diagenetic fractures of volcanic reservoir are the most effective reservoir space which were formed in volcanic eruption process of cooling and after cooling.[1]
Zhengshun Xu et al (2006) , Petrolem Exploration and Development 33(5), 521 - 531. [2]Xianbin Wang et al(2009), Sci. in China D, 52 (2), 213 – 226 .

http://events.jpdl.com/pdf/e120624aAbstract01920.pdf

-------------

Oilfield Review

Evaluating Volcanic Reservoirs

Hydrocarbons can be found in volcanic rock sometimes in significant quantities. Petrophysical methods originally developed for sedimentary accumulations are being used to evaluate these unusual reservoirs.

In the early days of petroleum exploration, the discovery of hydrocarbons in anything other than
sedimentary rock was largely accidental, and such accumulations were considered flukes. Serendipity is still part of exploration, but geologists now know that the presence of oil and gas in such rock is certainly no coincidence. Igneous rock—created by the solidification of magma—hosts petroleum reservoirs in many major hydrocarbon provinces, sometimes predominating them.

In general, igneous rocks have been ignored and even avoided by the E&P industry. They have been ignored because of a perceived lack of reservoir quality. However, there are many ways in which igneous rocks can develop porosity and permeability.

Far from inconsequential, igneous activity can influence every aspect of a petroleum system, providing source rock, affecting fluid maturation and creating migration pathways, traps, reservoirs and seals.

...

This article describes the complexity of volcanic reservoirs and presents technologies that have proved successful in characterizing them. The discussion begins with a review of igneous rock types and follows with an examination of the effects of igneous processes on petroleum systems. Two field examples highlight formation evaluation in volcanic rocks. A case study from a gas-rich reservoir in China presents a technique that combines conventional logging measurements and image logs with neutron-capture spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance.

An example from India demonstrates the importance of incorporating borehole resistivity images
in the evaluation of oil-bearing volcanic rock.

About Igneous Rocks

Igneous rock is formed through the solidification of magma—a mixture of water, dissolved gases and molten to partially molten rock. Igneous rocks vary from one reservoir to another because their constituents have diverse chemistries, originating from magma that mixes material from the Earth’s mantle, crust and surface—typically oxides of silicon, iron, magnesium, sodium, calcium and potassium. They also have diverse structures and textures—leading to complex porosities and permeabilities—depending on how they were emplaced. Emplacement mechanisms include sudden explosive eruptions, syrupy viscous flows and slow, deep subsurface intrusions. Subsequent weathering and fracturing can further complicate rock properties.

Igneous rocks form under a wide range of conditions, and therefore display a variety of properties (left). Molten rock that cools deep beneath the surface forms intrusive, or plutonic, rocks. Slow cooling of deep magmas forms large crystals, resulting in coarse-grained rock. These formations typically have low intergranular porosity and insignificant permeability, making them of little interest to the oil industry. The one exception is fractured granites, which can produce hydrocarbons.

Magmas that approach the surface tend to cool more rapidly. This allows less time for the formation of crystals, which therefore tend to be smaller, resulting in fine-grained crystalline rock.

http://www.slb.com/~/media/Files/resour ... rvoirs.pdf
On the Windhexe: ''An engineer could not have invented this,'' Winsness says. ''As an engineer, you don't try anything that's theoretically impossible.''
Chromium6
 
Posts: 537
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby sureshbansal342 » Mon Sep 09, 2013 12:56 am

can any body show me any scientific paper that can prove that kerogen ,the precursor of global petroleum has been formed from deceased organic matter. yes, i fully agreed it has been derived from organic rich sedimentary rocks ,it doesn't mean it has been formed from deceased organic matter. yes,i fully agreed that biotic characteristics has been injected in it the burial history of the mixture of organic matter and pre generated abiotic kerogen ( once present on the surface of the earth). this is the main flaw in current fossil fuel theory. it can never be true because it do not reconcile the valid evidence by the followers of abiotic theory,while in my model you can reconcile all the valid evidences by the both. it is high time to wake up and this can give major clue to find new locations of oil and gas. there can be a revolution in the petroleum industry. there is no need to change the current method but new signatures can be added.
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Joined: Thu Sep 16, 2010 1:06 am

Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby starbiter » Mon Sep 09, 2013 8:44 am

Chromium6 wrote:Here's an abstract on Chinese abiotic Oil:
-------------

The Characteristics of the Volcanic Abiogenic hydrocarbons reservoir in Songliao Basin,China

Shengguang Zhuo, Xianbin Wang, And Guifang Yang

Northeast University
at Qinhuangdao, China.
zoe200200@163.com
(* presenting author)

Key Lab, CAS,Lanzhou,China
xbwang@lzb.ac.cn

Northeast Petroleum University at
Qinhuangdao,China y-2000@163.com


Introduction

The natural gas reserves of Xushen gas field in Songliao Basin, China, is about Hundreds of millions of cubic meters , and the reserves of volcanic reservoirs is 89.8 % [1] , generally the nature gas has abiogenic alkane gases characteristcs [2].

Volcanic lithofacies and volcanic genesis

Cretaceous Yingcheng formation is rich in volcanic rock in Songliao Basin,China. Volcanic lithofacies consist of eight types.
Such as fallout facies, effusion facies, base surges facies, pyroclastics flow facies, lahar facies, eruption-sedimentary facies, sub-volcanic rock facis and sub explosive breccia facies. The lithology of volcanic rock is mainly middle acid volcanic rock(dacite, rhyolite, middle acid brecciated tuff and tuff), belonging to the calc-alkaline series of sub-alkaline series.

Volcanic reservoir conditions

The eruptive and overflow facies have better reservoir condition that has largely been affected by volcanic condensation diagenesis,tectonism, solution and fluid activity, and the volcanic rocks reservoir commonly with the porosity of 6.3%~10.8 % a nd permeability of about 0.55×10 - 3 µm 2 ~122.0×10 - 3 µm 2.
The most of effective reservoir are the upper phase or external phase of volcanic facies belts, usually being layers or thin layers of 10 ~ 20m. The pore types of volcanic reservoir The pores of volcanic reservoir could be classified into four types:

1 primary pores of original rocks,
2 diagenetic pores,
3 diagenetic fractures,
4 secondary tectoclases and weathered fractures.

Conclusion


Diagenetic pores and diagenetic fractures of volcanic reservoir are the most effective reservoir space which were formed in volcanic eruption process of cooling and after cooling.[1]
Zhengshun Xu et al (2006) , Petrolem Exploration and Development 33(5), 521 - 531. [2]Xianbin Wang et al(2009), Sci. in China D, 52 (2), 213 – 226 .

http://events.jpdl.com/pdf/e120624aAbstract01920.pdf

-------------

Oilfield Review

Evaluating Volcanic Reservoirs

Hydrocarbons can be found in volcanic rock sometimes in significant quantities. Petrophysical methods originally developed for sedimentary accumulations are being used to evaluate these unusual reservoirs.

In the early days of petroleum exploration, the discovery of hydrocarbons in anything other than
sedimentary rock was largely accidental, and such accumulations were considered flukes. Serendipity is still part of exploration, but geologists now know that the presence of oil and gas in such rock is certainly no coincidence. Igneous rock—created by the solidification of magma—hosts petroleum reservoirs in many major hydrocarbon provinces, sometimes predominating them.

In general, igneous rocks have been ignored and even avoided by the E&P industry. They have been ignored because of a perceived lack of reservoir quality. However, there are many ways in which igneous rocks can develop porosity and permeability.

Far from inconsequential, igneous activity can influence every aspect of a petroleum system, providing source rock, affecting fluid maturation and creating migration pathways, traps, reservoirs and seals.

...

This article describes the complexity of volcanic reservoirs and presents technologies that have proved successful in characterizing them. The discussion begins with a review of igneous rock types and follows with an examination of the effects of igneous processes on petroleum systems. Two field examples highlight formation evaluation in volcanic rocks. A case study from a gas-rich reservoir in China presents a technique that combines conventional logging measurements and image logs with neutron-capture spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance.

An example from India demonstrates the importance of incorporating borehole resistivity images
in the evaluation of oil-bearing volcanic rock.

About Igneous Rocks

Igneous rock is formed through the solidification of magma—a mixture of water, dissolved gases and molten to partially molten rock. Igneous rocks vary from one reservoir to another because their constituents have diverse chemistries, originating from magma that mixes material from the Earth’s mantle, crust and surface—typically oxides of silicon, iron, magnesium, sodium, calcium and potassium. They also have diverse structures and textures—leading to complex porosities and permeabilities—depending on how they were emplaced. Emplacement mechanisms include sudden explosive eruptions, syrupy viscous flows and slow, deep subsurface intrusions. Subsequent weathering and fracturing can further complicate rock properties.

Igneous rocks form under a wide range of conditions, and therefore display a variety of properties (left). Molten rock that cools deep beneath the surface forms intrusive, or plutonic, rocks. Slow cooling of deep magmas forms large crystals, resulting in coarse-grained rock. These formations typically have low intergranular porosity and insignificant permeability, making them of little interest to the oil industry. The one exception is fractured granites, which can produce hydrocarbons.

Magmas that approach the surface tend to cool more rapidly. This allows less time for the formation of crystals, which therefore tend to be smaller, resulting in fine-grained crystalline rock.

http://www.slb.com/~/media/Files/resour ... rvoirs.pdf



Hi CR6,

When i see volcanic activity i think electricity. I believe EU sees Telluric currents as a major factor with volcanic activity.

When i see pristine basalt on the tops of formations attributed to missing volcanoes i think back to Worlds in Collision. The survivors of the catastrophes describe dust, sand, gravel, rocks, and huge boulders mingled with "The River of Fire", in some cases glowing red-hot. If the "River of Fire" was hot plasma like the aurora it might explain much of the rock on Earth.

In some places it appears the currents heating the dust also created telluric currents. This seems to produce cinder cones, sometimes with lava flows. Volcanoes might also be produced or exacerbated during electrical encounters with comets. If oil is raining from above during this time frame one might expect oil to be associated with "volcanic" formations. The oil wouldn't need to be produced by the volcano. Oil raining from above would then flow through the existing river systems winding up in the sediments.

http://goo.gl/maps/RJZ7J

This isn't to say volcanoes can't produce oil. But there are other options that would never be considered by a sane person. That's never been a problem for me.

michael steinbacher
I Ching #49 The Image
Fire in the lake: the image of REVOLUTION
Thus the superior man
Sets the calender in order
And makes the seasons clear

www.EU-geology.com

http://www.michaelsteinbacher.com
User avatar
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Location: Antelope CA

Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Chromium6 » Mon Sep 09, 2013 9:57 pm

starbiter wrote:
Chromium6 wrote:Here's an abstract on Chinese abiotic Oil:
-------------

The Characteristics of the Volcanic Abiogenic hydrocarbons reservoir in Songliao Basin,China

Shengguang Zhuo, Xianbin Wang, And Guifang Yang

------------

Hi CR6,

When i see volcanic activity i think electricity. I believe EU sees Telluric currents as a major factor with volcanic activity.

When i see pristine basalt on the tops of formations attributed to missing volcanoes i think back to Worlds in Collision. The survivors of the catastrophes describe dust, sand, gravel, rocks, and huge boulders mingled with "The River of Fire", in some cases glowing red-hot. If the "River of Fire" was hot plasma like the aurora it might explain much of the rock on Earth.

In some places it appears the currents heating the dust also created telluric currents. This seems to produce cinder cones, sometimes with lava flows. Volcanoes might also be produced or exacerbated during electrical encounters with comets. If oil is raining from above during this time frame one might expect oil to be associated with "volcanic" formations. The oil wouldn't need to be produced by the volcano. Oil raining from above would then flow through the existing river systems winding up in the sediments.

http://goo.gl/maps/RJZ7J

This isn't to say volcanoes can't produce oil. But there are other options that would never be considered by a sane person. That's never been a problem for me.

michael steinbacher



Keep in mind Starbiter that a lot of PAHs are pretty toxic. If they fell on earth as Velikovsky describes... there wouldn't be much "living" afterwards.

Characterizing of microbe populations on hydrocarbon contaminated sites
http://szie.hu//file/tti/archivum/Szabo ... thesis.pdf
On the Windhexe: ''An engineer could not have invented this,'' Winsness says. ''As an engineer, you don't try anything that's theoretically impossible.''
Chromium6
 
Posts: 537
Joined: Mon Nov 07, 2011 5:48 pm

Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby starbiter » Tue Sep 10, 2013 6:51 am

Chromium6 wrote:
starbiter wrote:
Chromium6 wrote:Here's an abstract on Chinese abiotic Oil:
-------------

The Characteristics of the Volcanic Abiogenic hydrocarbons reservoir in Songliao Basin,China

Shengguang Zhuo, Xianbin Wang, And Guifang Yang

------------

Hi CR6,

When i see volcanic activity i think electricity. I believe EU sees Telluric currents as a major factor with volcanic activity.

When i see pristine basalt on the tops of formations attributed to missing volcanoes i think back to Worlds in Collision. The survivors of the catastrophes describe dust, sand, gravel, rocks, and huge boulders mingled with "The River of Fire", in some cases glowing red-hot. If the "River of Fire" was hot plasma like the aurora it might explain much of the rock on Earth.

In some places it appears the currents heating the dust also created telluric currents. This seems to produce cinder cones, sometimes with lava flows. Volcanoes might also be produced or exacerbated during electrical encounters with comets. If oil is raining from above during this time frame one might expect oil to be associated with "volcanic" formations. The oil wouldn't need to be produced by the volcano. Oil raining from above would then flow through the existing river systems winding up in the sediments.

http://goo.gl/maps/RJZ7J

This isn't to say volcanoes can't produce oil. But there are other options that would never be considered by a sane person. That's never been a problem for me.

michael steinbacher



Keep in mind Starbiter that a lot of PAHs are pretty toxic. If they fell on earth as Velikovsky describes... there wouldn't be much "living" afterwards.

Characterizing of microbe populations on hydrocarbon contaminated sites
http://szie.hu//file/tti/archivum/Szabo ... thesis.pdf


CR6,

From my reading of Worlds in Collision there wasn't much living after the rain of oil. There were probably many extinctions. Many human survivors thought they were the only survivors on the planet as they emerged from their caves.

Please see page 53. Or page 31 in the search box at the top of the PDF.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/21746049/Veli ... -Collision

michael
I Ching #49 The Image
Fire in the lake: the image of REVOLUTION
Thus the superior man
Sets the calender in order
And makes the seasons clear

www.EU-geology.com

http://www.michaelsteinbacher.com
User avatar
starbiter
 
Posts: 1445
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Location: Antelope CA

Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby Sparky » Tue Sep 10, 2013 10:34 am

But there are other options that would never be considered by a sane person. That's never been a problem for me.


:D

Funny guy :!: :lol:
"It is dangerous to be right in matters where established men are wrong."
"Doubt is not an agreeable condition, but certainty is an absurd one."
"Those who can make you believe absurdities, can make you commit atrocities." Voltaire
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby sureshbansal342 » Wed Sep 11, 2013 1:10 am

Can anyone show me any scientific paper that can prove scientifically that kerogen and bitumen has been formed from deceased organic matter only ??
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Posts: 148
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Re: Hydrocarbons in the Deep Earth?

Unread postby sureshbansal342 » Wed Sep 11, 2013 2:30 am

must observe this below statements by the followers of abiotic theory.

http://origeminorganicadopetroleo.blogs ... uotes.html
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