The Constant Chemistry of Seawater

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The Constant Chemistry of Seawater

Unread postby Brigit Bara » Thu Jan 17, 2019 12:54 pm

Does the chemistry of seawater remain constant for millions of years?

Here is an excellent resource on the subject for discussion:
http://oceanplasma.org/documents/chemistry.html

I am going to import some of the text in case the link gets broken.

1. Salinity is related to the concentration of dissolved salts in seawater.

In the past, salinity of seawater was measured by evaporating the water and weighing the amount of salt remaining. Since that approach is difficult and inaccurate, electrical conductivity of seawater is now used to measure salinity.

Conductivity increases as salt content of the water increases.
Conductivity gives very accurate salinity data: 35.0000X.
Conductivity (and temperature and depth) are measured by instruments called CTDs (Conductivity Temperature Depth). These instruments can make thousands of measurements/hour.
Salinity, temperature, and depth (pressure) can be used to calculate density, which is important to understanding vertical circulation of the water.
Salinity is greatest in warm, tropical surface waters, where there is more evaporation than precipitation. It is lowest where there are large inputs of freshwater from rivers.

Salinity has no units. (The PSU or "practical salinity unit" is incorrect, although frequently used.)

Salinity is approximately equal to the weight, in grams, of salt dissolved in 1000 g of seawater. This would be the salt concentration in parts per thousand (‰).
Average ocean water has a salinity of 35.0.
This means that 1000 g of average seawater contains 965 g of water and 35 g of salts.
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Re: The Constant Chemistry of Seawater

Unread postby Brigit Bara » Thu Jan 17, 2019 12:58 pm

3. Six major ions make up >99% of the total dissolved in seawater.

They are sodium ion (Na+), chloride (Cl-), sulfate (SO42-), magnesium ion (Mg2+), calcium ion (Ca2+), and potassium ion (K+).


5. The major ions are conservative. This means that they have constant ratios, to one another and to salinity, in almost all ocean water.

Another way of saying this is that sea salts have constant composition. They almost always consist of 55% sodium ion, 31% chloride, 8% sulfate, 4% magnesium ion, 1% calcium ion, and 1% potassium ion.

The main exception is where freshwater is mixing with seawater. River water has a different composition than seawater, for example, it contains more calcium ion.


source: oceanplasma.org
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Re: The Constant Chemistry of Seawater

Unread postby Brigit Bara » Thu Jan 17, 2019 1:01 pm

6. Sea salts mostly came from the weathering of rocks on land (the cations) and from the interior of the earth (anions).

The weathering of rock on land is a slow process of breakdown by water, with dissolved carbon dioxide, and that makes it slightly acidic.

Igneous (volcanic) rocks do not contain enough anions to be the source of mineral-laden water to the oceans. Now, sedimentary rocks are the source. In the past, volcanoes and, probably, an initial rapid release when the earth melted were the source.

Rivers carry the dissolved ions to the ocean.
Weathering may have been somewhat faster on the early earth, but even at the present rate it would take only about 8 to 260 million years to replace all the salts in seawater with those in the river inflow.
The time to replace the total amount of ions in seawater with the ions in the river inflow is called the 'residence time'.
Since this is much less than the age of the Earth and the oceans, some processes must remove the salts from seawater to keep them from building up to even higher concentration.


7. Ocean salt composition and concentration is in "steady state". This means that it does not change significantly over time.

Evidence indicates that sea salt concentration and composition has been about the same for 1.5 billion years at least. The tolerances of bacteria that probably lived 3.8 billion years before present indicate that sea salt concentration and composition were not too different, even that long ago.

The "steady state" results from the removal rate of salts from the ocean being equal to the input rate.

This balance holds because the removal rate of salts is related to their concentration, and increases when their concentration increases.

Removal processes include:

formation of evaporites (salt deposits left behind when seawater evaporates)
burial of sediment porewater (the water between sediment grains)
sediments, especially biogenic sediments, for Ca2+ (calcium ion) as calcium carbonate.
hydrothermal vents, especially formation of the mineral chlorite within the cracks and fissures of the vents, which removes Mg2+ (magnesium ion).


source: oceanplasma.org
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
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Re: The Constant Chemistry of Seawater

Unread postby Brigit Bara » Thu Jan 17, 2019 1:03 pm

Also, please see and save a copy of this table.


http://oceanplasma.org/documents/Elemental_Table.jpg
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
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Re: The Constant Chemistry of Seawater

Unread postby The Great Dog » Fri Jan 18, 2019 10:11 am

https://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2015/1 ... of-charge/

Sea water isn't just chemical, it's also organic.

TGD
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Re: The Constant Chemistry of Seawater

Unread postby Younger Dryas » Fri Jan 18, 2019 12:20 pm

The Great Dog wrote:https://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2015/11/23/a-sea-of-charge/

Sea water isn't just chemical, it's also organic.

TGD


Thanks Great Dog! and Kudos to Mr. Smith for the TPOD.
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Re: The Constant Chemistry of Seawater

Unread postby Brigit Bara » Sun Jan 20, 2019 4:14 pm

http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/wp-cont ... 7-1024.png
A nanoscale polysaccharide network. Credit: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vesna Svetličić, Vera Žutić, Galja Pletikapić and Tea Mišić Radić.


I am not trying to be a smart alec, but that amount of polysaccharides is quite a carbon sink :shock:

If you consider all of the trillions of marine foraminiferans going about their business every day, it is a sheer wonder that there is any co2 left at all.
“Oh for shame, how these mortals put the blame upon us gods, for they say evils come from us, when it is they rather who by their own recklessness win sorrow beyond what is given…”
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