What's more, this electrostatic dust mobilization may help explain the formation of "dust ponds" on asteroid Eros and Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, as well as the smooth surface on Saturn's icy moon Atlas"
""This new 'patched charge model' resolved a fundamental mechanism of dust charging and transport, which has been puzzling scientists for decades," Xu Wang"
NASA study finds solar storms could spark soils at moon's poles >
"Powerful solar storms can charge up the soil in frigid, permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles, and may possibly produce "sparks" that could vaporize and melt the soil, perhaps as much as meteoroid impacts"
"on the moon, these particles—ions and electrons—slam directly into the surface. They accumulate in two layers beneath the surface; the bulky ions can't penetrate deeply because they are more likely to hit atoms in the regolith, so they form a layer closer to the surface while the tiny electrons slip through and form a deeper layer. The ions have positive charge while the electrons carry negative charge"
-comment: ie an electric discharge"In August 2014, however, Jordan's team published simulation results predicting that strong solar storms would cause the regolith in the moon's permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) to accumulate charge in these two layers until explosively released, like a miniature lightning strike."
-comment, the rules for distinguishing are already well established (thunderbolts video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ThZZPCMXNU), very good that NASA is studying this."Laboratory on experiments to see how breakdown affects the regolith and to look for any tell-tale signatures that could distinguish it from the effects of meteoroid impacts."
Very interesting developments, NASA is not shying away from electrical interpretations.
If the moon is being charged, all other celestial bodies without an atmosphere could be (are) charged the same way, interaction with the solar wind.
Interesting note: the second article has a picture of the moon with permanently shadowed regions in blue, they follow the craters....of course you might say...but what comes first... the shadow or the electrical interaction...