Grey Cloud you have not provided a single source for any of your information. Therefore we are forced to believe that this is simply your opinion. Copy and Pasting from Wikipedia is fine (assuming that is what you are doing) but you should at the very least provide attribution -- earlier in this thread you repeatedly questioned my sources which were and continue to be clearly provided.
Jno Cook - Saturnian Cosmology:
"In mainland Greece, of 150 cities noted before the 8th century BC, only 13 survived to 650 BC. The same scale of destruction was experienced in Anatolia, the Middle East, and Italy. The period of 800 BC to 600 BC also saw the largest overseas colonization by the Greeks, as well as the virtual depopulation of the Eastern Mediterranean region and parts of Europe." De Grazia in The Iron Age of Mars (2009) estimates that of a population of 200,000,000 before 800 BC, only 5 million survived. The earlier level would not again be reached until AD 1900.
The destruction extended also into Northern Europe --- Some terrific information available for you from Velikovsky:
varchive.org ---- "The Dark Ages of Greece" ---- chapters of note: "Changes in Land and Sea" for Roman perspectives and "Closing the Gap" for Egyptian, Greek, European and Mesoamerican recollections. Also see Jim Reilly, Displaced Dynasties (displaceddynasties.com, circa 2000).
More from Cook - Saturnian Cosmology:
During the 8th and 7th century over 300 cities in the Middle East were destroyed by earthquakes and fire. The Mycenaean Greek culture comes to an end (conventionally dated 1200 BC). This decline in population presents a serious problem to a reconstruction of history, for not only were there few survivors to write history, but they would have been largely illiterate and uninterested, and even adverse to recording history. We only have the braggadocio records of the Assyrians, and the jeremiads of the prophets of Judah. There are some later (a century later) recollections by the Persians which reach back over the previous hundred years. We also have the accumulated clay tablets of the fortune-tellers and astrologers of Babylon, who concerned themselves more with celestial forecasting than actual history (and mostly dated to after 650 BC).
It is thus with difficulty that history between 800 BC and 650 BC is extracted from incomplete and unserviceable records. Even the books of the Biblical prophets were written or rewritten at later dates from older records, to be put in the service of prophecy and monotheism, and are often not at all helpful. Very little of the writing looks to be contemporaneous with the events.
What we do have are archaeological findings for Anatolia, Greece, and Italy, and eventually for a much broader range of territory. The record of destruction is absolutely astounding. Nothing before or after has equalled the catastrophic devastation of the era of the 8th and 7th century BC.
Chaos and Creation (1983), Alfred de Grazia writes about the book by Claude Schaeffer, Stratigraphie Comparée et Chronologie de L'Asie Occidentale, IIIe-IIe millénaires (1948):
"Certain outstanding events ... struck simultaneously a definite number or even the totality of urban centers of Western Asia. ... Not only is this conclusion persuasive as originally inscribed, but many locations can now be added to the doomsday list."............ "all that Schaeffer "automaticaly" consigns to the end of the Middle Bronze Age, at around 1750 BC I assign to the same time, but dated at about 1450 BC. The many destructions that he consigns to 1200-1300 BC, I assign to 800-700 BC." "The results are remarkable. Suddenly, the vast 'hiatus' between '13th century' destruction and 6th century proto-classical times becomes only a brief hiatus. It is clear that the vast movements of 'the peoples of the seas' were a fiction employed by scholars to explain the widespread natural disasters of the 8th and 7th centuries, the Mars disasters of our calendar."
Patten and Windsor, in The Mars-Earth Wars (1996), maintain that Mars showed up at the spring equinox and in October. they however disagree with the interval of 15 years, as initially suggested by Velikovsky.
Alfred de Grazia - The Disastrous Love Affair of Moon and Mars (1984): describing the destruction of Pylos, one of the destroyed locations, one of hundreds:
"Tidal waves wipe out nearly all coastal settlements (where perhaps 80% of the Greek-speaking population was contained in 800 B.C.). Chasms are opened; volcanoes are created and activated. Surface soils are ripped off by winds traveling at hundreds of miles per hour. Communities are obliterated or disrupted by showers of ash and debris, winds, water, fire, and famine.
"The Palace [of Nestor at Pylos] was destroyed in a 'holocaust' which 'consumed everything that was inflammable within it, and even melted gold ornaments into lumps and drops of metal.' The flames melted brick and stone into 'a solid mass ... as hard as rock.' In one room two large pots were fused 'into a molten vitrified layer which ran over the whole floor.' Everything that a human invader might desire was reduced to shapelessness. Stone was burned into lime. No human hands and hand-set fires could have wreaked such ruin.
The effects were felt equally in the New World:
Dennis Cox --- sites.google.com/site/dragonstormproject:
"There are tens of thousands of square miles of assorted ejecta, and breccias, and of rivers of melt, and pyroclastic materials in Northern Mexico. All in pristine, unweathered condition like they only happened yesterday. And if you follow those materials upstream back to their respective sources you find no volcanoes, and no craters, only bare patches of smoothly melted stone. Or miles-wide, irregularly shaped melt basins, or strangely shaped denuded mountains with all traces of alluvium blown away. And which, sometimes, in their undulating lines, and angular scale-shaped ridges, look for all the world like the spine of a dragon sleeping in the earth."
"... almost all of the object's kinetic energy gets translated to heat. The heat hits the ground in a supersonic, hyperthermal downdraft of perhaps millions of degrees. Most of the time even the detonation shock wave itself gets transformed into the heat. But here is no missing energy. And it doesn't 'dissipate harmlessly' in the atmosphere. The mountain is still history; it just very quickly, and violently, melts and goes away. Think about a gust of wind so hot that it instantly makes granite flow like water, and is just another gust in a turbulent storm. Then realize it's not imaginary. Such things have happened in the recent past. There are mountaintops at 13,000 feet (4300 meters) elevation in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, their glacial ridges melted, blasted, and blown over the ridge top in runnels of melt, like wax on the sides of a candle. And recent enough that the blast melt materials have never been subjected to the grinding action of a glacier. Or mountains in Eastern Texas softened and tossed around like waves in an angry sea."
Linear B is just one of MANY significant changes not only pertaining to the Greeks - but around the world: Its my opinion migrations of refugees played a large role in its inception.
Calendar Reforms: Jno Cook - Saturnian Cosmology:
On February 26, 747 BC, Nabonassar, king of Babylon, introduces a new calendar and an era called "the Era of Nabonassar." This dating schema is used to start compiling a yearly account of activities called the Babylonian Chronicle. Ptolemy (circa AD 150) and later astronomers would continue to use this astronomical record into the 15th century AD. Ptolemy also published a 900-year list of Babylonian kings up to his time using the Babylonian Chronicle.
Ptolemy uses the dates derived from the Babylonian Chronicle for a compilation of lunar eclipses (based on records obtained by Alexander in 331 BC from the Chaldeans), and marks 747 BC as the starting year of the collection, with the first eclipse in 721 BC. It is not certain if earlier records existed, but before 747 the skies were different, and earlier records would be invalid. China starts a record of eclipses at about the same time.
In the previous period, 1492 BC to 747 BC, the Earth year was 360 days and there were 12 lunar months of 30 days. When the number of lunar months changed to slightly more than 12 after 747 BC, a considerable number of people in the world retained the 12-month lunar calendar of the previous era, which ran about 11 days short of a full year, and made adjustments by periodically repeating one of the months. Some of these calendars have lasted into the 20th century AD.
The founding of Rome is dated to 747 BC, the year of the major disturbance of Earth by Mars. Probably long before 747 BC Rome had added two months (January and February) to their original ten-month lunar calendar (dating from before 1492 BC) and set all the months to 30 days, corresponding to the 30-day lunar month of the then-current era. (King Numa, who supposedly arranged this, is a fiction, and all the early records of Rome were destroyed by the Celts.) With the changes of 747 BC, the solution for the Romans was to end the year on February 28th (starting the year on March 1, the month of Mars), abandon lunar months in favor of calendar months, and distribute the extra days of the year equally among the remaining 30-day months. The change to starting the year on January 1 happened 700 years later after Julius Caesar's calendar reform of 40 BC. Appointments to the office of Consul already started on January first a hundred years earlier.
An interval of 4 years, called an "Olympiad" had become the standard of chronology among the Greeks. The Olympiads were counted from the first Olympic Games in 772 BC (four years after the so-called 'ballgame' of 776 BC; see below). The four-year cycle used for the Olympiads is actually based on the coincidence of the synodic periods of Venus and Earth. Five complete orbits of Venus (as seen from Earth) are equal to eight complete orbits of Earth (at that time). At the end of eight Earth years Venus would rise again in the east against the same background stars, and of course on exactly the same calendar day as eight Earth years earlier. Both the convenient halfway point of four-years and the full eight-year cycle of the "Venus calendar" were observed in Greece, Egypt, Mesoamerica, and South America. With the change of 747 BC, the four-year interval fell one day behind each Olympiad.
Five days were added to the Mesoamerican calendar of 360 days, before the end of 747 BC, and were known as the "Sleep of the Year". The same addition to calendars happened in almost every nation around the world, from Peru to Rome, and also to the Egyptian "civil" calendar. The Peruvian calendar included a leap day every four years to account for the quarter day left over at the end of the year. The Egyptian and Mesoamerican calendars did not account for the extra 1/4 day.
The "Long Count" was initiated by the Olmecs on February 28, 747 BC, with the count of double-decades, years, months, and days all set to zero. The "years" are 360-day years (18 "months") where the "month" is 20 days long. A larger measure, the Baktun, consisting of "400-year intervals," was set initially at 6. This is "220.127.116.11.0" in Long Count notation; see "The Maya Calendar" for details. The Long Count continued to be used by the Maya until AD 900.
The Maya considered that all pre-history happened in a Katun named "11-Ahau," which is named after the name of its last day. In the Chilam Balam there are a number of lists of events which always start with Katun 11-Ahau. Significantly, a Katun 11-Ahau ended on February 28th, 747 BC (Gregorian), when the Long Count calendar was started. The concept of assigning all prior history to Katun 11-Ahau may have its origin with this start of the Long Count. Katuns were named and likely were counted prior to this date.
The contemporary Maya of Chiapas, Mexico, still retain the use of the Haab calendar of remote antiquity, and start the 5 intercalated days (the five extra days added to the 360-day year) on February 26 of our calendar. The year thus ends after February 26.
The Romans in effect did the same thing with the pre-Julian calendar, ending the year in mid-February, but used a 365-day year: "February was split into two parts, each with an odd number of days. The first part ended with the 'Terminalia' on the 23rd, which was considered the end of the religious year; the five remaining days formed the second part." -- Wikipedia
Tedlock reports that among the Quiche Maya of Guatemala the arrival of a new solar year is celebrated on February 25th, two days early from the Chiapas calendar.
February 26th, the day of the disturbance of 747 BC, was celebrated as the start of the year (New Year's day) among the Aztecs at the time of Cortez.
At about this time, China declares that there are now 365.25 "degrees" in a circle. We do not know for certain when this practice started, since all books were burned in 213 BC. But it was certainly in use by the first or second century BC. It did not turn out to be convenient in geometry, but worked fine for celestial navigation on the seas. It was still in use in the 15th century AD.
As an aside in addition to 'Linear B' here are some other significant changes to come out of the era:
Rome is Founded (747bc)
The First Olympic Games (776bc)
Buddhism (563-483 BC)
The Mystery Religions of Anatolia and Greece -- the worship of Demeter, Orpheus, Dionysus all seem to date to the 6th century BC
Within 100 years after 685 BC, we see the simultaneous rise of philosophy in China, India, Mesopotamia (Chaldea), Israel, and Greece. The coincidence of start-up dates is amazing. The methods of building a philosophical system differ, but everywhere the systems include a sudden interest in history and in physics. About the sudden interest in materials and basic concepts,
Kelley L. Ross:
"The multiple points of similarity between thought of Greece, India, and China, evident in the simplest terms in their respective treatment of the physical elements, cannot be accounted for by mutual influence, which does not seem to have existed at the earliest period."
Chaldea and India devise a science of astrology. Israel collates the historical facts for the Bible and adds the rituals from antiquity. The Greeks start investigations which will form the core of Western physics, and write the first histories.
Irving Wolfe, "The 'Kultursturz' At The Bronze Age / Iron Age Boundary"
"...evidence for what I call a 'Kultursturz' or cultural crisis in which a large number of cultural elements underwent quick and sharp change within the same short period of time. These include the appearance of secular as opposed to strictly religious art, a host of new religions of a new type, new philosophies of a new type, writing, dynastic upheavals, the quick upsurge and removal of several tyrannical regimes, urbanism, new patterns of consciousness, behavior, and dreaming, new types of social organization, vast pan-Greek ritualistic athletic games, the institution of democracy and the use of money. All of these elements are totally different in spirit from those of the previous (Bronze Age) cultures."
"If all of these cultural revolutions can be correlated chronologically among themselves and to scientific evidence for similar upheavals well documented in the geological, archaeological and climatological record, then we have before us the outline of a global natural event which not only ended one historical era, but led to the distinctive cultural characteristics of our modern age. After all, we are the children of this period of upheaval."
"I decided to believe, as you might decide to take
an aspirin: It can't hurt, and you might get better."
-- Umberto Eco Foucault's Pendulum (1988)