Recovered: Transmutation on Stars, Planets etc

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Re: Recovered: Transmutation on Stars, Planets etc

Unread postby bboyer » Fri Mar 28, 2008 8:15 pm

Posted: Sat Jan 26, 2008 9:52 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "lk"

EXPERIMENT TO TRANSMUTE CARBON INTO IRON
http://www.google.com/books?id=bxu-n2j- ... o#PPA25,M1
- Ohsawa (1971) wrote a book condensation of Kervran's publication and added some experiments he had carried out himself. He had "transformed" carbon into iron using a low-cost apparatus assembled from some pieces of wire, a copper plate and a variable 110-230V transformer.
- I don't know what the pathway is supposed to be for transmuting carbon into iron, but the most plausible seems to be C.6:12 + O.8:16 = Si.14:28; 2Si = Ni.28:56; Ni.28:56 - H.1:1 = Fe.26:54. The second most plausible route seems to be C + O = Si; Si + 4Li = Fe.26:56.
- If anyone can find the book by Ohsawa, it may explain how to do the experiment in more detail.
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Re: Recovered: Transmutation on Stars, Planets etc

Unread postby bboyer » Fri Mar 28, 2008 8:16 pm

Posted: Sat Jan 26, 2008 9:57 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "lk"

ORIGIN OF COAL & OIL
http://www.google.com/books?id=bxu-n2j- ... o#PPA25,M1
_Kervran proposed that "Coal comes from schists, fabricated in situ, by high compression that produced the reaction: Si = C + O. If O could not escape, and was compressed as well, one would have O + O = S, from which one gets sulfurous coals.... As for diamonds, here, too, one observes the presence of silicates, thus of silicon.... In this way one can explain why all coal deposits contain silicon."
_For oil formation Kervran proposed that, at great depths magnesium undergoes geological transmutation to carbon: Mg = C + C. Any water present will furnish hydrogen to unite with carbon, forming the various petroleum hydrocarbons. The oxygen from water can fuse to make sulfur - the source of sulfurous oil. The magnesium may be derived from underground salt water, in the reaction, Na + H = Mg. Or Mg may come from layers of dolomitic rock.
_In my table on the first page of this thread you can also see that Mg may come from calcium: Ca = Mg + O. Dolomite is carbonates of Ca and Mg. Ca in turn may come most commonly from Si + C or vice versa.
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Re: Recovered: Transmutation on Stars, Planets etc

Unread postby bboyer » Fri Mar 28, 2008 8:17 pm

Posted: Sat Jan 26, 2008 10:25 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "lk"

OHSAWA'S TRANSMUTED IRON IS BETTER THAN NORMAL IRON
- I found the following in The Awesome Life Force, by Joseph H. Cater [p.417] at
http://books.google.com/books?id=g7y6WB ... #PPA422,M1
- In the transmutation experiments of Ohsawa, electric currents supplied the necessary soft electron concentration for the reactions to occur, since, as shown earlier, soft electrons concentrate along an electrical flow. There is another rule which governs transmutation processes. If the transformed atoms have stronger and or more extensive cohesive forces than the others involved, such atoms will multiply at the expense of the others involved. Isolated atoms are more readily captured by soft particles than are aggregates. This applies to both synthesis and reduction processes. The reduction process in the case of mercury and gold has already been mentioned.
- The iron produced by the combustion of carbon and oxygen in the Ohsawa process resists corrosion far more than ordinary iron and also has a higher melting point. The reason is the transmuted iron is completely free of contaminants. Therefore, the forces of cohesion between atoms is stronger. Consequently, there is a greater tendency to resist the invasion of oxygen atoms. Also, the greater and more extensive cohesive forces enable aggregates of such atoms to remain solid at higher temperatures.
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Re: Recovered: Transmutation on Stars, Planets etc

Unread postby bboyer » Fri Mar 28, 2008 8:19 pm

Posted: Sun Jan 27, 2008 7:40 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "Krackonis"

lk wrote:OHSAWA'S TRANSMUTED IRON IS BETTER THAN NORMAL IRON
- I found the following in The Awesome Life Force, by Joseph H. Cater [p.417] at
http://books.google.com/books?id=g7y6WB ... #PPA422,M1
- In the transmutation experiments of Ohsawa, electric currents supplied the necessary soft electron concentration for the reactions to occur, since, as shown earlier, soft electrons concentrate along an electrical flow. There is another rule which governs transmutation processes. If the transformed atoms have stronger and or more extensive cohesive forces than the others involved, such atoms will multiply at the expense of the others involved. Isolated atoms are more readily captured by soft particles than are aggregates. This applies to both synthesis and reduction processes. The reduction process in the case of mercury and gold has already been mentioned.
- The iron produced by the combustion of carbon and oxygen in the Ohsawa process resists corrosion far more than ordinary iron and also has a higher melting point. The reason is the transmuted iron is completely free of contaminants. Therefore, the forces of cohesion between atoms is stronger. Consequently, there is a greater tendency to resist the invasion of oxygen atoms. Also, the greater and more extensive cohesive forces enable aggregates of such atoms to remain solid at higher temperatures.


If I'm right, that sounds like Damascus Steel. ( Or the Iron Oblisk that wouldn't rust.)
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Re: Recovered: Transmutation on Stars, Planets etc

Unread postby bboyer » Fri Mar 28, 2008 8:21 pm

Posted: Mon Feb 04, 2008 3:27 am Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "lk"

FIRE & BRIMSTONE
- I just received this email that seems pretty relevant. It doesn't mention transmutation, but brimstone is said to be sulphur and the sulphur that formed in Sodom and Gomorrah seems likely to have been an electrical discharge effect, in other words, interplanetary lightning.
oahspe@yahoogroups.com Date: Thu, 31 Jan 2008 00:23:01 +0000
Subject: [oahspe] More Oahspe Confirmed -Sodom and Gomorrah
More Oahspe Confirmed: Sodom and Gomorrah in the Valley of Siddim.

A friend, travelling in Israel, Jordan and Egypt visited a site which is said to be the site of Sodom and Gommorah. He showed me photographs and described various sized pure sulphur balls which are embedded in the rocks all over the sites that are found around the shores of the Dead Sea. He told me that the suphur when tested was found to be of the purest grade, far purer than what is usual for natural suphur deposits.

Oahspe confirms that destruction of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah:
First Book of God: ||24/9.6. And Abraham and his people went as commanded by God, and visited the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah; and God spoke privately to Abraham, saying: I will destroy these cities, for they are like hells for evil spirits; but Lot (the elder and younger) shall escape for your sake. 24/9.7. And when they came to Sodom, behold, angels walked among the people, and the people knew they were angels, but were indifferent777 regarding them. And there were laws made by Bera, king of Sodom, regarding the behavior between angels and men. 24/9.8. And Abraham, being pressed by the presence of God, said to his people: Behold, there are angels that love to dwell in lust, and to partake with mortals; to eat with them, to lie down with them, and to partake in all ungodly pleasures. 24/9.9. God, through his angels, rained down fire and brimstone on Sodom and Gomorrah, and they were burnt and destroyed. Lot, the elder, escaped, and went and lived in a cave.||

Extract from News Article about Wyatt's discovery in Nashville Banner, 12 Jan 1993: ||The ash is layered, This, Wyatt contends, is the result of thermal ionization that takes place when objects are burned at an extremely high temperature. Substances burned with sulphur leave and ash that is actually heavier than the original material, thus explaining how these buildings have survived [for so long]|...... .When the burning sulphur rained down upon the cities, everything was set ablaze. As the cities burned, these balls of laming sulphur were smothered out by the ashen remains. The substance from these capsules has proven to be 96.7 percent sulphur in tests conducted at Galbraith Laboratories in Knoxville. Like nowhere else in the world, the sulphur from these capsules was ball shaped. "This is an indication that it passed through the atmosphere," Wyatt says.....||

http://www.pinkoski.com/content/view/20/35/ Extract: ||........Lennart Moller is a very dedicated and dilligent genetic scientist who works at the Medical University of Stockholm, and I am sure that his lab tests on the sulfur balls and the ash are very thorough! He says that the ash-like substance in the area consists of a mixture of limestone, dolomite and gypsum, plus a high proportion of fine-grained sulfur-- and he also found melted iron and a partially cremated skeleton in the area, all of which he documents in his book, which I quote: "All the analysis were carried out with X-ray crystallography, liquid chromatography and atom absorption spectrophotonmeters by qualified geological and analytical laboratories ... The results from this analysis mean that one can explain in simple chemical terms what is most likely to have happened in this place ... CO2 (carbon dioxide) is released from CaCO3 (the limestone) under intensive heat (in this case burning sulfur). At the same time the sulphur (S) is oxidized to sulphur dioxide (SO2), which reacts with water to form sulphate (SO4/2-). The calcium ion (Ca2+) can then react with the sulphur ion (SO4/2-) and form calcium sulphate (CaSO4). Calcium sulphate is what we call gypsum. Analyses of the dominating mineral in this area show that it is gypsum." --Page 41....||

The story in the Ezra bible which tells of the block of salt that Lot's wife became as they were escaping, now makes sense as a marker to the place, the Dead Sea being the saltiest place on earth, being 6 times saltier than the ocean.
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Re: Recovered: Transmutation on Stars, Planets etc

Unread postby bboyer » Fri Mar 28, 2008 8:26 pm

Posted: Mon Feb 04, 2008 7:05 pm Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "Krackonis"

lk wrote:FIRE & BRIMSTONE
- I just received this email that seems pretty relevant. It doesn't mention transmutation, but brimstone is said to be sulphur and the sulphur that formed in Sodom and Gomorrah seems likely to have been an electrical discharge effect, in other words, interplanetary lightning.
<snip>


Looking at this:
sodom4.jpg
(click to view larger image)

Looks like a long strike area right in the middle of the dead sea.
dead_sea_sw2.jpg
(click to view larger image)

Shows a shape similar to a rille. Perhaps the cities were all hit along the side of this area. Would explain why some cities are only partially EDMed. The rest were simply "taken away".
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Re: Recovered: Transmutation on Stars, Planets etc

Unread postby bboyer » Fri Mar 28, 2008 8:27 pm

Posted: Mon Feb 04, 2008 9:55 pm Post subject: transmutation Reply with quote
OP "starbiter"

The Thoth newsletter had two interesting articles about microbes causing transmutation. The little buggers live inside of mountains with no light, water or, air. They seem to enjoy radiation and high temperature. The question might be where you need to go to find a place without life. http://www.kronia.com/thoth/thoVI-05.txt http://www.kronia.com/thoth/thoVI-06.txt It's interesting that the process inside of use doesn't work without Vitamin D, the Sunshine Vitamin. And the process produces Electricty. Part 2 has a response from Wal
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Re: Recovered: Transmutation on Stars, Planets etc

Unread postby bboyer » Fri Mar 28, 2008 8:29 pm

Posted: Wed Feb 06, 2008 1:09 am Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "lk"

little buggers live inside of mountains


Kervran discussed transmutation within rock too by such critters [bacteria etc]. I think he said saltpeter, an ingredient of gunpowder[?], is formed by bacteria too, but on the surface of rock outcrops etc. It's incredible how deep into bedrock and granite bacteria can survive and transmute.
long strike area right in the middle of the dead sea.


Glad to see the images here, Krac. Looks like you might be right about the Dead Sea being the result of a huge ED. Kind of looks like a small-scale Valles Marineris. But, if so, so would be the entire Jordan River valley, I think, which is part of the same crack. I suspect that this long fracture zone and EDM occurred much earlier and that the Sodom and Gomorrah event was more recent and smaller, maybe sparked by a comet or meteors. The original EDM I think would have removed all traces of the cities. Don't you imagine?
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Re: Recovered: Transmutation on Stars, Planets etc

Unread postby bboyer » Fri Mar 28, 2008 8:30 pm

Posted: Wed Feb 06, 2008 1:16 am Post subject: Reply with quote
OP "lk"

MERCURY INTO GOLD
- Here are a couple of formulae I figured out a few years ago for transmuting mercury into gold.
Hg200 = Li7 + Ir193; Ir193 + He4 = Au197.
Hg202 + H1 = Tl203; Tl203 = He4 + Au197.
- It would be easier to start with Iridium or Tellurium, but those are likely much more rare than Mercury.
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Re: Recovered: Transmutation on Stars, Planets etc

Unread postby bboyer » Fri Mar 28, 2008 8:37 pm

Posted: Thu Mar 06, 2008 6:44 am Post subject: Transmutation, The Alchemist Dream Come True Reply with
OP "arc-us"

ISIS Press Release 24/10/07 wrote:Transmutation, The Alchemist Dream Come True
Not just base metals into gold; but the profuse creation of elements that is rewriting the book of genesis. Dr. Mae-Wan Ho


A fully referenced and illustrated version of this article is posted on ISIS members’ website. Details here

An electronic version of this report, or any other ISIS report, with full references, can be sent to you via e-mail for a donation of £3.50. Please e-mail the title of the report to: report@i-sis.org.uk

Cold fusion scientists have managed, not so much to transmute base metals into gold (although there have been unconfirmed reports to that effect), but more spectacularly, to make a whole range of elements on the lab bench, with equipment not much more sophisticated than what the ancient alchemists might have used. In the process, nuclear energy is released - safely and without toxic or radioactive wastes - that could be harnessed for heating or to generate electricity [1] (see From Cold Fusion to Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, SiS 36).

In addition, there is the attractive possibility of solving the world’s nuclear waste problem (see Box) by transmuting highly radioactive and toxic nuclear wastes from conventional nuclear reactors into safer non-radioactive elements [2].

The world’s nuclear waste problem

The most pressing nuclear waste problem is the high level radioactive waste produced by nuclear reactors. It contains nuclear fission products and transuranic elements (with atomic numbers greater than uranium) generated in the reactor core, which have half-lives greater than 20 years, in some cases thousands, or tens of thousands of years [3].

The US Environment Protection Agency recognizes the ionising radiation from nuclear wastes as a serious health hazard [4]. Acute exposures result in radiation sickness, burns, premature aging, or even death. Cancers and birth defects result from stochastic exposure. Some radioactive waste elements, such as U-238, are both radioactive and highly toxic. U-238 has a half-life of 4.5 billion years.

Nuclear wastes also constitute a major security concern, as they could be acquired by terrorist organisations or rogue nations and turned into nuclear weapons.

It is estimated that high level nuclear wastes is currently increasing by about 12 000 tonnes every year. Most of this waste is put into long-term storage after complicated treatments such as converting into glass or various concrete blocks. However, finding long-term storage sites that are safe and geologically stable remain a hot political issue in most countries.


Transmutations galore

Transmutation reactions come in two classes [5, 6]. The first class of reactions result in a large array of products with mass numbers spanning across the periodic table; these may involve the formation of a heavy compound nucleus that can decay and split into different elements (but see later). The second class of reactions give distinct, isolated products directly, without the compound nucleus intermediate.

These ‘cold’ or low energy transmutation reactions are remarkably easy to accomplish compared to the conventional ‘hot’ nuclear reactions that are supposed to take place in stars or supernova explosions, or else only at millions of degrees K.

By 2003, transmutation experiments have been studied in some detail by over 14 separate laboratories worldwide: Beijing University and Tsinghua University in China; Lab des Sciences Nucleaire in France; Frascati Laboratory and University of Leece in Italy; Hokkaido University, Mitsubishi Corporation, Osaka university, and Shizuoka University in Japan; SIA LUTCH, Tomsk Polytechnical University in Russia; Portland University USA, Texas A & M University, and University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign in the USA [5].

The minimum requirement for transmutation is a metal hydride film or membrane loaded up with hydrogen or deuterium to a high level, and kept in constant flux [5-8]. Electrode materials have ranged from carbon, nickel, to uranium. The metal hydride can be loaded by electrolysis of water or heavy water using a thin film of the metal as cathode; or else deuterium gas can be made to diffuse through the metal membrane by injecting the gas on one side and evacuating from the other side [9]. But a wide variety of experimental conditions have been used to trigger or speed up the reactions, including surface plasma electrolysis, plasma discharge, laser initiation and external electric or magnetic fields.

George Miley’s team at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign in the United States is one of the main groups involved in transmutation [5]. They used multi-layer thin film nickel, palladium or titanium [6] coated by sputtering on polystyrene microspheres, and loaded up to a high level of hydrogen by packing the coated beads in the cathode of an electrolytic cell. The products of nuclear reaction were documented carefully with a combination of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). SIMS detects most isotopes and is very sensitive but covers only a small area, typically a single microsphere, and is not very accurate. NAA on the other hand gives very accurate analysis of the entire electrode, but is restricted to detecting only certain elements. A combination of the two methods enabled the team to study a large number of isotopes. An overlap in the data set allowed a more accurate re-standardisation of the SIMS data to the more accurate NAA measurements.

A typical experiment is run continuously for 260 hours, resulting in a wide variety of elements. There are four high yield peaks in the atomic mass of 22-23, 50-80, 103-120 and 200-210. This pattern is generally consistent with results obtained by other research groups. Non-natural isotope distributions have been found for some elements, which is also a sign of nuclear reactions.

The most commonly reported elements are calcium, copper, zinc and iron. They were found in more than 20 different experiments. Forty percent of the least frequently observed elements were rare earths from the lanthanide group: lutetium, terbium praseodymium, europium, samarium, gadolinium, dysprosium, holmium, neodymium and ytterbium.

There were other effects associated with nuclear transmutation. These include energetic charged particles, protons (~1.6 MeV) and alpha (~16 MeV) emissions, and low level soft X-ray emissions. Excess heat was also produced simultaneously. Based on binding energy calculation, Miley concluded that the rate of transmutation correlates well with the excess power produced.

Transmutations have been obtained with both light and heavy water solutions, but heavy water appears to give a larger number of transmutation products under some conditions.

Direct transmutation of single elements


Yasuhiro Iwamura and colleagues at Mitsubishi’s Advanced Technology Research Center and colleagues have taken another approach to nuclear transmutation by concentrating on the direct transmutation of one element into another [10, 11].

They used D2 gas permeation through a sandwich of thin alternating layers of palladium (Pd) and CaO sitting on a bottom layer of bulk Pd. Permeation of deuterium is forced through the layers by exposing the top of the sandwich with a thin Pd film to D2 gas while the bottom is maintained under vacuum. On the D2 gas side, dissociative absorption causes the D2 molecules to separate into D atoms, which diffuse though the sandwich towards the vacuum side, where they emerge from the Pd metal, combine and are released as D2 gas (see Fig. 1). The element to be transmuted is deposited on the top Pd film of the Pd/CaO sandwich by electrolytic loading from a salt solution. Cesium (Cs), barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr) have been transmuted in this way. The analysis of elements was done in situ, without removing or disturbing the sandwich, using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) directed at the topside of the sandwich

Figure 1. Transmutation by permeation (see text)

A typical experiment lasts for about a week or two. Cs has been transmuted into praseodymium (Pr) reproducibly in more than 60 experiments. Sr was transmuted into molybdenum (Mo) in three experiments lasting two weeks, the resulting Mo differed in isotope composition from natural Mo.

Based on an analysis of the depth profile of Pr, it appears that a very thin surface region of up to 10 nanometres is the active transmutation zone.

In the experiment involving transmutation of Ba to Sm, different isotopes of Ba resulted in the correspondingly different isotopes of Sm. 138Ba transmuted into 150Sm, and 137Ba transmuted into 149Sm, the increase in atomic mass was 12 in both cases, and atomic number 6. In both the transmutation of Cs to Pr and Sr to Mo, the increase in atomic mass was 8, and atomic number 4.

The role of the CaO layer was revealed in an experiment in which Cs was transmuted to Pr [10]. In all three samples with the normal Pd/CaO sandwich, Pr was found as the end product, but not in an experiment without a CaO layer; nor in two experiments in which the CaO layer was replaced by MgO. The CaO layer appeared to increase the deuterium density 10-fold compared to palladium alone. The layer also has a very negative free energy, so that the transition metal Pd serves as a source of interface electrons to screen the positive charges of the deuterons from one another [12], thereby facilitating fusion and transmutation. It is thought that fusion may have occurred between deuterons to form helium, 4He2, which then further fuses with the heavier nuclei to give the end product.

Laurence Hecht, editor of 21st Century Science and Technology commented that Iwamra’s work implies a revolution in our understanding of the nucleus, a fundamental breakthrough in science, compared to which, practical applications, even one so necessary as a new supply of cheap, clean energy, is of secondary importance [13].

The most common products of conventional thermonuclear fusion are about 3 to 4 MeV, and that involves an enormous amount of energy input to accelerate apha particles to one-tenth the velocity of light. Iwamura’s transmutation yields 50 to 67 MeV, with the greatest of ease, or very little energy input by comparison.

Rewriting creation

Allen Widom at Northeastern University Boston and Lewis Larsen of Lattice Energy recently proposed a mechanism that could account for a wide range of fusion and transmutation reactions [7] (for an accessible account read How Cold Fusion Works [2], SiS 36). They suggested that the surface of metallic hydrides fully saturated with protons develop collective electron and proton surface plasma oscillations (plasmons) that enable the electrons to gain sufficient mass to be captured by protons resulting in ultra-low momentum neutrons. In a subsequent paper, they showed how these ultra-low momentum neutrons could be absorbed (captured) by heavier nuclei to produce new elements across the Periodic Table [14]. The expected chemical nuclear abundances resulting from such neutron absorption fit the available low energy transmutation experimental data quite well.

The important feature of such nuclear transmutations is that they do not need special mechanisms to penetrate the high Coulomb barrier, as proposed in other models.

First of all, the experimental distribution in atomic mass number A of the low energy nuclear reaction products measured in laboratory chemical cells are similar to the nuclear abundances found in our local solar system and galaxy. Furthermore, these maxima and minima in abundances resemble those predicted in the ultra-low momentum neutron absorption reaction cross-section (the likelihood of interactions), treating the neutron as a wave. Thus, it raises fundamental questions as to whether the conventional astrophysical account of how the elements are created in our stars and galaxies under thermonuclear conditions is correct.

The prediction based on treating the ultra-low momentum neutron as a wave results in a quasi-periodic curve: the peaks of reaction corresponds to the neutron wave fitting inside the spherical model potential wells of the nuclei, the radius of the well varying with atomic mass
.

Data on the yields of transmutation product in an experiment using light water containing Li2SO4 in an electrolytic cell are plotted on the graph (see Figure 2). As can be seen, there is a reasonable correspondence between the experimental points and the predicted peaks and troughs of the neutron cross-section. The magnitude of the transmuted nuclear yields varies from one experimental run to another, but the agreement with the predicted curve remains over all experiments, and regardless of whether the electrode is titanium hydride, palladium hydride or layered Pd-Ni hydride.

Figure 2. Experimental abundance of elements (filled circles) superimposed on neutron absorption cross-section as a function of atomic mass (continuous line)

When the neutron wavelength within the well reaches resonance with the radius of the well, a peak appears in the scattering strength. If we associate resonant couplings with the ability of the neutron to be virtually trapped in a region near the nucleus, then for intervals of atomic mass numbers around and under the resonant peaks, we could expect to obtain recently discovered neutron ‘halo’ nuclei (nuclei that have a clear separation between a normal core nucleus and a loosely bound low-density ‘halo’ of neutrons outside the core). The spherical potential well model predicts the stable regions for the halo nuclei and thus the peaks in observed nuclear transmutation abundances.
The neutrons yielding the abundances in our local solar system and galaxy have often been previously assumed to arise entirely from thermonuclear processes and supernova explosions in the stars. These assumptions may be suspect in the light of the evidence from low energy nuclear reactions. Widom and Larsen remark: “It appears entirely possible that ultralow momentum neutron absorption may have an important role to play in the nuclear abundances not only in chemical cells but also in our local solar system and galaxy.”


The story of our universe has been created may well have to be rewritten.

http://www.i-sis.org.uk/alchemistsDream.php
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Re: Recovered: Transmutation on Stars, Planets etc

Unread postby bboyer » Fri Mar 28, 2008 8:39 pm

- 30 -
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Re: Recovered: Transmutation on Stars, Planets etc

Unread postby bboyer » Fri Mar 28, 2008 8:57 pm

Posted: Fri Mar 28, 2008 8:50 pm
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x-posted from Iridium as a marker for impacts?

Solar wrote:Transmutation @ TOPD

"Between 1910 and 1930, many experimenters (some extremely well respected) reported the mysterious appearance of hydrogen, helium and neon in electrical discharge tubes.1 E.C.C. Baly, a Fellow of the Royal Society, summarized pertinent results in the Annual Reports of the Chemical Society for 1924 (pages 41 to 47) and 1920 (pages 27 to 35). He published results of his own experiments with R.W. Riding in 1925 and 1926. They concluded that nitrogen atoms had been converted into helium and neon during their high voltage electrical discharge experiments.
On February 13, 1914, Professor J. Norman Collie, Fellow of the Royal Society, presented a speech1 to the society. He described several experiments he performed and those reported by others in which hydrogen, helium and neon gases mysteriously appeared in electrical discharge tubes." - Paul Rowe "Controlled Transmutation of Elements Under Surprisingly Mild Conditions? via Hasselburger
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new discrepancy found in age of Earth's mantle

Unread postby heretic5 » Fri Apr 11, 2008 12:59 pm

http://www.physorg.com/news127124384.html
offers a report about an apparent discrepancy in the age of rocks from the Earth's mantle. The discrepancy arises because the scientists believe that their dating method is correct whereas we realize that it is incorrect because of transmutation which is caused by electricity in plasma. One way to remedy this imbalence of comprehension would be to use the spare computing power of thunderbolt afficionados to make a simultation which would show the mainstream scientists that transmution can be caused by electricity in a plasma. Anybody here able to write such a distributed processing simulation?
Last edited by bboyer on Fri Apr 11, 2008 3:05 pm, edited 1 time in total.
Reason: Post merged with this topic from its own separate topic in NIAMI section
heretic5
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Re: Recovered: Transmutation on Stars, Planets etc

Unread postby bboyer » Fri Apr 18, 2008 8:25 pm

Excerpted from:
THOTH
VOL VI, No 6
Sept 30, 2002

EDITOR: Amy Acheson
PUBLISHER: Michael Armstrong
LIST MANAGER: Brian Stewart

CONTENTS
A SPECULATIVE ENTERPRISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mel Acheson
MICROBES IN GEOLOGY: part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Earl Staelin
MEMO TO EARL STAELIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wal Thornhill
MICROBES IN GEOLOGY (continued from THOTH VI-5) By Earl Staelin


MICROBES IN GEOLOGY
Part 2: How do microbes concentrate minerals to levels vastly exceeding the surrounding medium? The theory of biological transmutations.

The next question, is HOW DO microbes concentrate minerals to levels much higher than the medium in which they live? Do they make limestone out of sandstone or mud containing mostly silica and little calcium? How do they concentrate gold up to 100 million times the surrounding medium? How do they concentrate manganese, iron, magnesium, etc.? Where do the elements that dominate the crust of the earth come from, since they were apparently not present during the pre-Cambrian era? Actually, most prominent scientists often admit that they do not yet understand how microbes concentrate minerals and elements to such a high degree. In this uncertainty I believe that it is wise to keep an open mind, and to be willing to investigate new theories that may explain such puzzling phenomena.

One expert who devoted a great deal of attention to the question of how microbes or living organisms concentrate elements was a French biologist named Louis Kervran, whose exceptional work I believe is worth careful examination. After many years of investigation he published a theory in 1960 which he called biological transmutations. His theory contends that living organisms are actually able to transmute one element to another. He concluded that they do this through a catalytic effect caused by enzymes and hormones, and by several routes -- such as by combining two elements, by splitting an element, or by the movement of a proton and neutron from one atom to another atom within a molecule. He published meticulous experiments that supported his position. In 1975 he was nominated for and nearly won the Nobel Prize for his work. However, he died in 1983 at the age of 82, and therefore under the rules for the Nobel, could no longer receive it. A number of his findings and one of his books dealt primarily with geology.

Let's see how he proved his theory as applied to the problem of the formation of limestone, and the problem of the "concentration" of minerals. Kervran performed studies that showed an unsuspected formation of limestone in the sandstone monuments in Ankhor, Cambodia, including Ankhor Wat. Kervran, as a high government official in France, had access to a multidisciplinary team of experts. The original pink sandstone at Ankhor Wat contains substantial quantities of silica in the form of quartz and feldspar, but little calcium. However, some portions were found to be infected with bacteria. The infected sandstone appeared to be turning into limestone. Here are some of their research findings based upon 120 samples:

SiO2 CaO Normal stone 63.0% 1.40% Deteriorated stone 35.8 17.34 (Angkor Wat, external facing; Kervran, Beekman Pub, pp. 48-49)

Thus, as silica disappears, calcium appears, the decrease in silica from 63 to 36 being equivalent to the increase in calcium from 1.4 to 17.34. As Kervran shows, if silica can combine with carbon at the level of the nucleus, then calcium could be formed. In other words: Si28 + C12 = Ca40. Kervran's group analyzed the rainwater on the monument to test whether this increase in calcium had come from rainwater, which trickled down the lower west face of the monument, and found that it did not because the calcium ions in rainwater and in the water dripping from the lower west face were the same. Thus, the rain in washing over the facade had not taken away any calcium.

Kervran also analyzed the magnesium and potassium in the stone, which could also be transmuted into calcium based upon his previous studies. However, he found that MgO in normal stone was 2.50%, and in deteriorated stone was 2.64%, and the K2O was 1.2% in both normal and deteriorated stone, so the calcium "could not have come from these two minerals", and only the silica had significantly decreased.

"An investigation was made of the micro-organisms present on the monument. Out of 120 samples taken, 83 contained actinomycetes, all of which were in the deteriorated stone, whereas there was none in the samples from the healthy stone. The authors reported identification of seven species of actinomycetes, all belonging to the genus Streptomyces (from one of which streptomycin is produced). 'We have observed these actinomycetes to be much more abundant in the stones which showed most deterioration ... The almost constant presence of these micro-organisms in lesions of the stones permits the view that they have an important role in the process of deterioration.'

"In a paper, published by the (French) Academy of Sciences, it is established that there is a marked increase in calcium (varying at 1158% [i.e. increased nearly 12-fold] without any detectable amount of the element being supplied externally by water. On the other hand, the silica alone decreases in considerable proportion. This change in the siliceous stone and the accompanying increase of lime is linked to the presence of micro-organisms. If instead of giving relative values for SiO2 and CaO we only consider absolute weight variations of Si and Ca, we find they are almost in equilibrium at 9.8 ± 1.5 (the variation is because there is no Si = Ca, but Si + C = Ca)." This occurs because Si (28) + C (12) = Ca (40). (Complete details may be found in _Proceedings of the French Academy of Sciences_ (Book 258, Section 13, pp. 6573-75, 6/29/64), and in the 1965 French edition of Kervran’s _Biological Transmutations_.)

Limestone has variable amounts of magnesium in it, which may be explained by Kervran's discovery that microbes can transmute calcium into magnesium by taking oxygen from it (Ca - O = Mg).

The theory of biological transmutations appears to contradict a basic theory in chemistry proposed 200 years ago by Lavoisier that atoms or elements cannot be combined or split to make other elements. Later it was shown that such changes could occur at very high energies, although none of those experiments involved living organisms. Because Kervran's theory is based upon many reproducible experiments, we should heed the advice of the great French physician, Claude Bernard, who said:

"When one is confronted with a fact which is in opposition with a prevalent theory, one must accept this fact and abandon the theory, even though the latter, supported by great men, may be generally subscribed to." (Kervran, Swan House Pub. Co., p. 154)

Louie de Broglie, Nobel Prize laureate in physics said:

"It is premature to reduce the vital (i.e. living) processes to the quite insufficiently developed conceptions of 19th and even 20th century physics and chemistry." (Kervran, supra, p. 1).

Kervran first published his theory and the evidence in 1960. The response in France by medical doctors and scientists was highly favorable. For example, M. Camberfort, Professor of Geotechnics, in 1974 said:

"I have spoken of your work in my most recent book, because I consider that your hypotheses, largely confirmed in certain cases, are the only ones susceptible of explaining a number of facts noted by geologists, and so far explained (in geological circles) by fairy tales and old wives’ tales."

Debra S. Stakes, a geochemist at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute in Moss Landing, California, said:

"Most geological processes at their more fundamental stages could be biologically mediated, which challenges our models for inorganic thermodynamics, for driving reactions." (Broad, ibid.)

General relativity and quantum mechanics are two systems that are to some extent mutually inconsistent, and each of them has difficulty explaining certain phenomena, implying that both may be inadequate in some key respects. Kervran believes that transmutations fall in the class of forces in physics called "weak nuclear reactions". Some scientists suspect that the dipole character of the electrical force or electromagnetic force may play a significant role in the explanation. The weak nuclear force (electro-weak force) of the atom was related to the electromagnetic force in the 1960's by 1979 Nobel Laureates in physics, Steven Weinberg, Sheldon Lee Glashow and Abdus Salam. Kervran was convinced that a better understanding of the electro- weak force would probably explain biological transmutations. If a successful electrical explanation can be found for biological transmutations it would move science closer to the grand unified theory that scientists seek, and would better satisfy the Occam's razor principle: "simpler is better".

Most scientists do not have an informed opinion about biological transmutations because they either have not heard of it, or have not investigated it, despite significant published literature proving that biological transmutations occur. In fact, I one well-known biologist told me he had never heard of biological transmutations. Usually scientists try to explain their unexpected and anomalous results by saying that the microbes "concentrate", or "preferentially fix" minerals, or that the minerals "migrate". However, as Kervran has said:

"(T)hose who employ (such) terms have never measured the total content of the element in question—neither in the experimental jar nor in the soil -- before or after cultivation." (Kervran, Swan House, pp. 4-5). Often these scientists admit that they don't understand how microbes concentrate minerals.

As shown, Kervran provides strong empirical evidence that limestone may be formed from sandstone or silica through the action of several species of streptomyces (order of actinomycetes), which transmute silica into calcium. (Si + C = Ca). Biological transmutations might also explain the creation of geological formations of limestone from large deposits of fossils which often appear to have been buried originally in sand, gravel and clay, each of which contains a large amount of silica. Transmutations appear to require the presence of sufficient water in liquid form to sustain the bacteria.

Biological organisms appear to be involved in the formation of chalk, such as the white cliffs of Dover in England, which like limestone, also consist of calcium carbonate. (Broad, ibid.)

Many other anomalies consistent with transmutation occur in the biochemistry of calcium:

1. Americans consume more calcium and milk products than just about any country in the world, yet we have one of the highest rates of osteoporosis. (The Harvard study of 77,761 nurses found that persons with a high dietary calcium intake actually had 45% more hip fractures over 12 years than those with the lowest intake. (Diane Feskanich, Sc.D., et al. "Milk, Dietary Calcium, and Bone Fractures in Women: A 12-Year Prospective Study", _Am. J. Pub. Health_, 87:6; 992-997, June 1997). A 1994 study of elderly men and women in Sidney, Australia found that those with the highest milk product consumption had approximately double the risk of hip fracture compared to those with the lowest consumption, Cumming RG, Klineberg RJ, "Case-control study of risk factors for hip fractures in the elderly", _Am. J. Epidemiol_., 1994; 139:493- 50.

2. Rural Chinese do not consume milk products or take calcium supplements, and their average calcium intake was 544 mg. per day (approximately half that of the RDA in the U.S.). Among these Chinese women over age 50, the rate of bone fractures is about one fifth as high as in Western nations. (T. Colin Campbell, Hunshi Chen, _Diet in Rural China_, Lippincott/Williams & Wilkins, 1999; Hu, J-F, Zhao, X-H, Hia, J-B, Parpi, B., Campbell, T.C., "Dietary calcium and bone density among middle-aged and elderly women in China,", Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1993; 58: 219-217).

3. Milking cows experience a daily "deficit" of calcium (and phosphorus) at such a great rate that in one year's time, its bones would be seriously depleted if it got its calcium from calcium. (Kervran, Swan House Pub., pp. 57, 67-68; A. Demolon and A. Marquet, _Le Phosphore et la Vie_, P.U.F. Pub., Paris 1949). However, if silica and magnesium (Mg + O = Ca) in the grass are considered as sources of calcium through transmutation, as shown by Kervran, there is no mystery and no deficit because grass contains large amounts of silica and magnesium.

4. Broken bones have been shown to heal much more quickly when a source of organic silica such as the herb horsetail is provided. (Kervran has excellent photos of x-rays showing rapid healing with horsetail, (Kervran, Swan House Pub., p. 137)

5. Broken bones have been shown to heal much more quickly when foods high in calcium such as milk products are withheld. (E. Plisnier, Sauvez votre sante, Edit. P.I.C. Bruxelles, 1966; Kervran, Swan House Pub., pp. 145-146)

6. The oak tree "grows best in soils rich in silica, where lime may be totally absent, but the tree can have large amounts of calcium in its wood and bark (up to 60% lime in the ash)" (Kervran, _Biological Transmutations_, Beekman Press [hereinafter "BP"], 1972, p. 26).

7. Grass grows best on soil high in calcium, yet its ash contains large quantities of silica and magnesium but little calcium. However, it is not necessary to add magnesium to the soil, despite removal of much greater quantities of magnesium year after year than the soil could possibly have contained. Yet, when the soil becomes depleted in calcium, daisies spring up in the lawn, and daisies have an ash that is high in calcium, thus restoring the soil (Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, _Fecondite de la Terre_, Edit. Les Triades. Paris, 1949 (reedit. 1960, avec preface de A. Louis). "When lime is lacking, silicon loving plants grow, and their ash is rich in lime" (Kervran, BP, p. 25).

8. The skeleton of a chicken just hatched has four times more calcium in it than was in the egg. The calcium did not come from the shell because on the 10th day the outer leaf separates from the shell enlarging the air chamber, and the calcium only increases from the 10th day to the 20th day. The outer leaf of the membrane inside the shell contains about .5% silica, however, and the inner leaf contains less (Kervran, Swan House Pub., pp. 46-47).

9. Kervran once tested a crab that was molting, and was a soft mass without a shell. It was placed in a container with a little seawater and by the second day its shell was fully formed, which weighs about 350 g. Seawater has only .042% calcium in it, so that the shell's calcium could not have come from the water. However, seawater has 5% magnesium salts, which could have produced the calcium: Mg + O Ca. (Kervran, Swan House Pub., p. 58) Dr. Charruyer, Chairman of the Department of Physics at the Medical School of Limoges, France mentioned to Kervran:

"that he had found in primitive grounds geodes of calcite in slaty rocks which were very hard, compact, and absolutely impermeable. These rhomboidal forms of calcium carbonate can be very big and weight many kilos, but due to their impermeability, there is no possibility that they could have come by migration. They could only have had an endogenous origin in one of the components of the schists. In my opinion they could only have come from the reaction (Si + C = Ca) since C also comes from the schists in the reaction Si = C + O." (Kervran, Beekman, p. 73)

Despite these anomalies, chemists generally have never tested for the source of all the calcium. Instead they ASSUMED it was "concentrated" or "precipitated" from calcium already in the vicinity, despite general indications weighing against such assumption, and despite published evidence by Kervran and others proving that there was no adequate source of calcium and that other elements were the probable source.

Let's look at the experiments that led Kervran to publish his theory of biological transmutations in 1960. The experiments arose from numerous unexplained carbon monoxide poisonings in acetylene torch welders going back 25 years (See Kervran, Beekman, pp. 17-23).

In 1935 Kervran investigated for the French government the carbon monoxide poisoning death of an acetylene torch welder welding steel for the French government. After careful investigation of the air breathed by the welder no source of carbon monoxide could be found. In subsequent years Kervran investigated numerous other deaths of welders from C-O poisoning and no source of C-O was ever found. Finally, in 1955 Kervran again was called upon to investigate the deaths of three more welders by C-O poisoning. This time an extremely thorough investigation was performed involving numerous specialists from different fields over a period of four years. Again no source of carbon monoxide could be found. This finding is not surprising since the great heat of red-hot iron (or steel) should cause complete combustion of all carbon. Numerous tests were performed to consider all conventional explanations.

Such C-O poisonings of welders and failure to find the a source of C-O were by no means confined to France. In England and especially Germany detailed studies were done to determine the cause of the C-O poisonings. Careful measurements of the air near red-hot welding operations were unable to find a trace of C-O (Kervran, BP, p. 20). Not long ago I talked with a retired former director of maintenance at the Gates Tire Co. in Denver, Colorado and he told me that they also had a problem with C-O poisoning among welders but had never been able to discover the source of C-O. He said the problem was solved once they supplied air to the welders through tubes from a source away from the welding itself.

Based upon all the evidence Kervran finally concluded that nitrogen in the air when heated by red hot iron or steel had been transmuted in the body to carbon monoxide. Thus, N2 = CO, which involves the movement of one proton and one neutron from the nucleus of one nitrogen atom to the other, thereby changing one atom to carbon, and the other to oxygen. After over four years of painstaking research into the welders’ C-O poisoning, Kervran published his results and theory of biological transmutations in 1960. The findings that led him to this conclusion were as follows:

1. No source of carbon monoxide was ever found.

2. Every surviving welder in the workplace was tested, and the blood of all tested high in carbon monoxide, some approaching a fatal level.

3. The helpers who worked nearby the welders but not in the immediate vicinity of the red hot steel were also tested. None of the helpers had elevated levels of carbon monoxide in their blood.

4. When helium was tested in place of nitrogen, the welders no longer got carbon monoxide poisoning. (Kervran, BP p. 21)

5. When the welders' air supply was provided through tubes from nearby air that was not exposed to the red hot metal, carbon- monoxide poisoning no longer occurred.

6. It was later determined that the iron must be heated to a deep red or hotter, or to a temperature of more than 400 C (752 F) (experiments on rabbits and humans; Kervran, 1964, BP, pp. 20-21; Swan House Pub., pp. 18-19). When the iron is bright red (considerably hotter) the effect is quick (Kervran, Swan House Pub., p. 19).

7. An argument that the carbon monoxide could have been produced as a result of increased oxygen pressure was disproved in 1963, showing that the production of C-O occurs independently of oxygen pressure. (Desoille, H. and Truffert, "Absence de correlation entre la pression de l'oxygene et l'oxyde de Carbone dans le sang," _Arch. Mal. Prof._, July, 1963.)

Kervran reasoned from these facts as follows: The nitrogen molecule in air has two nitrogen atoms which are 1.12 Angstroms apart. The electrons circulate in a common orbit around both. The carbon monoxide molecule's nuclei are 1.09 Angstroms apart. One proton and one neutron move from one nitrogen atom over to the other nitrogen atom, changing one N atom into carbon and the other into oxygen. The electrons stay in the same orbit as the nuclei move slightly closer together. Kervran states that the first five protons in an atom (as in boron) are in an inner orbit (Kervran, BP, p. 102), while elements with more protons, such as carbon and nitrogen have additional protons in a larger orbit. Kervran states that it appears that the protons in this second orbit are not as tightly bound, requiring less energy to dislodge them. Kervran believes that a proton and neutron in the second orbit of one of the nitrogen atoms in a nitrogen molecule are energized and resonate with the nitrogen activated by the infrared wavelengths generated by the red hot iron and under the influence of an (as yet) unidentified catalyst, probably present in the lungs or blood, the proton and neutron move from one nitrogen atom to the other, changing nitrogen into carbon monoxide (whose spectral pattern has two peaks at 8 and 9 microns in the infrared) instead. The energy from iron at 1100 C to 1300 C resonates in the infrared at 6 to 8 microns. (Kervran, Beekman, p. 40). Thus, red hot iron and C-O have a common resonance at 8 microns in the infrared. Further evidence that a transmutation occurred is afforded by the fact that the C-O poisonings stopped completely once the welders were provided with air to breathe through tubes from a location away from the red hot iron.

This revolutionary theory is supported by the fact that there is now sound evidence that numerous other biological transmutations take place in nature, many of which were verified by Kervran and other scientists.

In urging you to keep an open mind, I will quote Alexis Carrel, eminent French surgeon and 1912 Nobel Prize winner, who wrote:

"The mind has a natural tendency to reject what does not come within the framework of the scientific expectations of our epoch. Scientists are men after all. They are impregnated with the prejudice of their class and times. They readily believe that what is not explainable in current theory does not exist."

MANGANESE AND IRON. Another geological process investigated by Kervran involved a "black disease" on the cave walls and temples of Banteay Srei in Cambodia. The surface of the rocks becomes black and this black layer consists of 5% manganese (Mn), which causes the black color. But there is only .05% manganese in the stone (100X less). There is more Mn in the black surface layer than in the entire rock, so the Mn could not have come from the rock. However, an analysis of the pink sandstone revealed 5-15% iron (Fe). So the Fe could be the source of the Mn: Fe(56) - H(1) = Mn(55). So they tested to see if this was true, using actinomycetes and bacteria, which were set apart and cultured on FeSO(4). Mn was produced. (Kervran, HP, p. 92-94).

In the bottom of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans manganese nodules are found, which are "fished" on a large scale. Many investigations have been done which show that bacteria are heavily involved in the production of manganese, including research by Henry Ehrlich. The conventional explanation is that the nodules are formed by bacteria which oxidize the Mn to allow it to fix itself onto the nodule. However, as Kervran says, "no one has thought to make a systematic experiment without manganese, in ferrous solution". However, industrial studies demonstrated enrichment of the Mn in the presence of actinomycetes bacteria in ores poor in Mn but rich in Fe. (Kervran, Swan House Pub. p. 98). The proliferation and activity can be considerably increased by controlling the temperature and pH and by adding 0.1% peptone to the solution. Kervran observes that mangano-bacteria are found in significant quantities in all types of soil (e.g. 315,000- 255,000,000 per gram), along with other microbes. Iron ores normally contain 0-20% manganese, and vice versa.

Kervran made a related study of a reverse reaction, or Mn to Fe. This was done in a Petri dish in which selected bacteria were cultured in a mineral solution to which a Mn powder is added. After a certain time (for incubation) a "rapid proliferation is established and the ferro-bacteria transmute the Mn into Fe." (Kervran, Swan House Pub., p. 98, see photo).

To the objection that "nuclear" energies must be involved in such reactions, and that the reactions are thus impossible, Kervran points out that the basic nuclei for constructing the atom are not split. The binding energy between protons and neutrons in the "sub-nuclei" does not change; the only energy involved is that which either separates the two nuclei or draws them closer. He states:

"The studies which we have made show that only energies measured in keV are involved, whereas in nuclear physics energies are expressed in MeV, therefore a thousand times greater. (I would point out that 1MeV = 1.6 million ergs; therefore 1 erg = 625 billion electron-volts. These are therefore very low values, but they are applicable to a single atom; the energy of 1 MeV = 3.82 X 10^14 small calories.)"

"In chemistry the bonding energies are usually electron-volts, sometimes even less than 1eV, which is 1000 times less than in the new science where we are establishing our first facts."

"An appendix in Low Energy Transmutations gives part of a study made by the physicist L. Romani, showing that a drawing nearer of nuclei of a molecule could explain the mechanism we have proposed, and that the energy needed to set it in motion is at the rate of keV. This confirms our findings." (Kervran, BP, p. 39).

As he says however, the energy required to change N2 to C-O is only 112 eV. (Kervran, BP, p. 41), which may require some revision of our laws of thermodynamics as applied to living organisms.

Kervran points out that considerably greater energy is needed for the greater change required for the combination of elements to make a third element, such as Si + C = Ca. It is suggested that experimenters test these energies.

One interesting theory that ought to be investigated has been presented by Ralph Sansbury, who has reanalyzed tests of the speed of light and other tests and has done some of his own experiments which together suggest that light travels much faster than conventional theory, and that a modified understanding of electromagnetism may be needed to replace general and special relativity and quantum mechanics and to explain many phenomena that defy these theories. Wal Thornhill shares this opinion although he has different ideas about some of Sansbury's conclusions, and he accepts biological transmutations as a reality. Sansbury has presented his ideas in his book: _Gravity, Magnetism and Light: Charge Polarization Inside Electrons and Atomic Nuclei_, 1998, 128 pages, available on Internet at: http://mysite.verizon.net/r9ns/book03.htm

Now, let's look at another remarkable experiment, this time with sodium and potassium. Some experiments strongly confirming a biological transmutation from sodium to potassium were performed by Hisatoli Komaki, a Japanese professor of science and director of a microbiology laboratory, who was later co-nominated for the Nobel Prize with Kervran. His replication of Kervran's work involved a rapid production of potassium from sodium by molds and yeast in just 72 hours. (Na23 + O16 = K39). He used several species of mold: aspergillus niger and penicillium chrysogenum, and two species of yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae (spore-forming) and torulopsis utilis (non spore-forming). The experiment was performed using a sodium and bacteria solution and medium with and without .01 mg added potassium (Na23 + O16 = K39.) There was 0.4 mg of K in the flask and from the glass before the experiment. After 72 hours at 30 C (86 F) the K results were as follows:

Cultured with K Cultured without K Species 5.35 mg. K 0.901 mg. K Aspergillus niger 10.27 1.049 Penicillium chrysogenum 15.84 1.749 Saccharomyces cerevisiae (brewer’s yeast) 22.37 2.017 Torulopsis utilis (wild yeast)

Thus, K increased from 0.41 mg up to a range of 5.35 to 22.37 mg (13X to 54X) in just 72 hours. A considerably smaller but still substantial increase in K occurred where no K was provided at the outset. The non-inoculated control flasks showed just 0.4 mg K at the end of the experiment, or no increase at all. (K, BP, pp. 42- 44). Detailed experiments supporting biological transmutations from sodium to potassium, including in humans, were previously performed and published by Kervran and are also detailed in his work.

The fact that K production is greatly increased when a tiny amount of K (.01 mg.) is added at the start of the experiment is explained by research by Monod and Jacob, Nobel Prize winners in 1965. Kervran states:

"There is a specific gene for the enzyme which induces formation of potassium from sodium, but this gene is inactive if blocked by an inhibitory agent whose action may be canceled by a sufficient rate of K. Below this rate the inhibitor is active and blocks the gene, with the result that the enzyme is not synthesized (in man it is aldosterone that is synthesized). It is evident, therefore, that experiments in biological transmutations may not succeed with highly purified substances." (Kervran, Beekman, p. 44).

A similar finding by someone not familiar with the theory of biological transmutations is that Henry Ehrlich reported a rapid increase or "concentration" of manganese by microbes. However, he found that the accumulation (or production) of manganese was increased by up to 2,000 times more when a small amount of manganese (.1%) was added at the start of the experiment (Ehrlich, op. cit., p. 418).

A number of experiments were performed by Kervran beginning in the 1930's in which he demonstrated a probable transmutation of sodium to potassium in oil derrick workers in the high heat of the Sahara desert. He showed marked imbalances in sodium and potassium and calorie consumption and loss during the hot summer months, in which workers consumed large amounts of sodium but excreted large amount of potassium and magnesium. Kervran suggests that the transmutation of Na23 + O16 = K39 absorbs significant body heat and that perspiration is inadequate to the task. Time will not allow me to discuss these studies in detail here but they are presented at length in Kervran’s books (Kervran, BP., pp. 51-61; Swan House Pub., pp. 27-35).

Pannos T. Pappas, physicist at the Technological Institute at Piraeus, Greece, performed research supporting the theory that a transmutation of sodium to potassium occurs within the cell. He discusses serious flaws in the conventional theory of the sodium- potassium pump in human physiology, and shows how a transmutation of sodium to potassium provides a much better explanation for the phenomena observed. (Pannos T. Pappas, “Electrically Induced Nuclear Fusion”, _Journal of New Energy_ Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 5-9, spring, 1998. The article also available at http://www.papimi.gr/eqoflif.htm.)

Kervran and others have demonstrated transmutations of substantial quantities of various elements by living organisms within a few days. For example, these experiments can be easily performed on dried fruits, sprouting seeds, bacteria, and yeasts in various media.

"One plant, the tilandsia, commonly known as Spanish Moss (a Bromacea), will grow on copper fibres without roots or contact with the soil. Its ash contains no copper, but has 17% of iron oxides in addition to various other elements which could not have come from the rainwater supplied to the plant." (Ibid. p. 26).

Kervran, who also discusses and has researched numerous other mineral changes in rock that seem explainable only by biological transmutations, states:

"I should say at once that changes in rock are due to microorganisms; fungi, often of the family aspergillacae and other moulds; microscopic algae; bacteria; actinomycetes such as streptomyces which live like bacteria but reproduce like fungi. In these phenomena there is therefore an interaction of living organisms followed by various chemical reactions between the elements set up by biological transmutation." (Ibid. p. 28)

Another geological action based upon bacterial action is reflected in various salt deposits. Through a number of studies Kervran has verified that sodium may be transmuted to potassium (Na23 + O16 = K39), and to magnesium (Na23 +H1 = Mg24). Thus, the oldest salt deposits have the highest proportion of magnesium and potassium, and the most recent ones have the highest sodium content and relatively less potassium and magnesium. (Kervran, BP, pp. 56-59)

I also suspect that lichens may perform some transmutations. Lichens are combinations of algae and fungi which break down rocks. I have seen in Texas and in Colorado limestone on which lichens are growing and bear the characteristic orange-red coloration of iron oxide, as though the lichens are making iron out of the calcium. This would make sense if the calcium combines with carbon, as Ca(44) + C(12) = Fe(56). And it might explain my friend's very heavy petrified rock with the grain of an oak tree assuming some of the Ca (which may be up to 60% in oak ash) may have "turned" into Fe. I believe it would be worth investigating these rocks for iron content and a possible transmutation.

Additional biological roles of microbes:


Kervran has discovered some biological transmutations involving elements that suggest a possible pathway for silification without introducing silica from outside. These involve the production of Si from C and O, or from N2. Leo says that Scurfield et al. (1974) "observed that silica particles often occur with starch grains or with polyphenolic material in the same cell, and suggested a causal relationship to be operative" (Leo, supra, p. 47). This is consistent with the idea that carbon and oxygen in the cell in the form of starch grains (carbohydrates) and polyphenolic material (hydrocarbons with oxygen) combine to form silica. (N2 C + O; C+O Si). Such transmutations occurring locally within the cell, each of them in a nano-space, seems more consistent with the preservation of microscopic cell structure that often occurs in silification and petrification, than if the silica came in from outside the dead tree cell to replace carbohydrates in the cell that are somehow driven out of the dead cell. Other more recent experiments using bacteria or yeasts to cause petrification have reported petrification within a period of about three years using wood soaked in the residue from making beer, and embedded in sand. Here the silica in sand may play a role mentioned above by Kervran of assisting the transmutation by overcoming an enzyme that otherwise would block the transmutation, as explained by Monod and Jacob.

In conclusion, there is now extensive evidence that microbes are ubiquitous through the crust of the earth, and that they play a major role in a great many geological processes and formations. There is also excellent experimental evidence that microbes in numerous cases perform transmutations of elements so as to produce such formations. Most microbiologists are not aware of the theory, even though the evidence unmistakably favors the theory as the only reasonable explanation. However, biological transmutations is like the elephant in a room that no one will talk about because the theory appears to violate the laws of physics. Yet when consistently reproducible facts violate a theory, it is time to reexamine the theory. Microbiologists and geomicrobiologists do often admit that the phenomena they are describing defy an explanation, and they generally come up with speculative solutions, such as the theory that microbes "concentrate" minerals, or the minerals "migrate", and other unproven statements. In my opinion, these phenomena should be studied thoroughly with an open mind, and a concerted effort should be made to reexamine our theories of the atom to see if one might be devised that could explain the facts of transmutations as well as other natural phenomena.

Earl Staelin
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There is something beyond our mind which abides in silence within our mind. It is the supreme mystery beyond thought. Let one's mind and one's subtle body rest upon that and not rest on anything else. — Maitri Upanishad
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HOW OLD IS THE EARTH?

Unread postby Lloyd » Tue Apr 29, 2008 5:30 pm

Earlier here I had said: "The neutrino expansion idea is interesting except for the 200 million years figure [for the beginning of Earth expansion]. I doubt if the Earth is more than a few ten thousand years old, just as Venus is likely less than ten thousand years old. ... - The guesses about millions of years figures seem to be based on uniformitarian assumptions. Robert Gentry has a website that has excellent evidence that Earth's basement granite rock crystallized almost instantly instead of over millions or billions of years."
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And recently, on Apr 23, 2008, the TPOD said: "The Siberian Traps - ... According to conventional geologic theories, the Siberian Traps are the remains of volcanic eruptions that took place at the end of the Permian Age, around 250 million years ago. Scientists consider it to be the largest volcanic event on Earth in the last half-billion years. The amount of lava released during the theorized million-year time period is truly staggering – an area two million square kilometers (five-times larger than Texas) in extent is covered with basalt deposits two kilometers deep. ... It seems likely that northern Siberia was the location of lightning strikes as big as half a continent that might have occurred in relatively recent times."
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By "relatively recent", I'm sure Stephen meant a few thousand years ago. This shows again that the Thunderbolts team who started this website regard the Earth as much younger than do conventional scientists. And you folks who doubt that need to do some rethinking.
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