Found this in: https://www.reddit.com/r/PhilosophyofScience/
And it seems to apply to almost all of astronomy.
Order from Chaos, Fact from Nonsense
Despite being complete and utter nonsense by design, a small part of the paper
(circa 10%) appears, albeit by chance, to make sense at first glance. Thanks to this
small amount of apparent credibility, the remaining ~90% of the paper then helps
to create the belief that the author 'must be on to something' despite the fact that it
also makes absolutely no sense.
The author is then automatically assumed not only to be credible, but also
'ahead of the game', and is slowly able to establish his/her self as an authority
within the field to which the paper applies, and by this stage no doubt be
the subject of much controversy. They may be invited to give presentations or to
contribute further in their field by producing additional written work or even by
directing research efforts where large sums of money may be involved.
Slowly the authors' view become accepted as factual and no longer a welcome
candidate for further debate.
The Butterfly Effect of Biased Science
In science there are many ideas that became popular. Popularity has nothing to do
with reality, but everything with beliefs and bias.
I think that the Big bang became popular for religious reasons. Now we had a scientific creation event.
People do simply want this to be true, and it fits the observations just enough.
The same is with many other popular theories.
If we introduce a theory that becomes popular, real-world observations are modified or ignored to
keep the theory "alive". Scientists really become obsessed in finding ways to keep the old theories.
That is because it is hard to break with something that has become a great part of your life.
The brain can also perceive an attack on a theory/belief as an physical attack.
So scientists specialised in the model will use their capabilities to deny any adaptions to their theories,
and not be able accept any changes.
This is even worse: they will attack anyone who threatens them, and guard the theories via peer-review systems.
They will also hinder progress via unfounded criticism and control of finances and other resources.
This can start with a single small event. Let's start with the effect of light on magnetism by Zeeman.
After finding the effect, we find it everywhere. Especially on the Sun.
So now the sun has become magnetic. And even though it breaks with maxwell's equations,
the scientists involved invent their own magnetic interactions, that exclude all electrical fields.
This seems to match all observations, and these scientists become "specialists" in this field.
Still we have no clue of how it works, but any criticism has now to go through many
layers of peers and unfounded criticism that use all their capabilities to prevent changes to
their models. They also write books and educate new people in their fields, fortifying their
position even more.
The unicorn of magnetic reconnection is born.
Yet, if only they had looked deeper at the magnetic model of the sun,
they could also see that it does not work at all with Maxwell.
They could be sceptical and place a 'maybe' in the observations of the Zeeman effect.
And validly conclude that it needed more research and observations.
But it is hard for scientists to be inconclusive and truly sceptical.
Years later Stark found the electrical variant of the Zeeman-effect. And with that the sun
is suddenly much easier to understand. But the scientists do not want to understand it.
They can not even understand it, because they have always looked at it in the wrong way.
All their education, books and personal work has been the wrong way.
They will want to hold on to their false models as if it is their lives.
So instead of specialists that improve the science by review,
they have become corrupted protectors of flawed theories.
The unicorn of magnetic reconnection can not be killed.
This is the butterfly effect of a false theory in science.
Just a small error creates a path towards a wrong theory
that keeps us in the dark for many many years.