Introduction into Plasma Cosmology
Big-bang = Infinite x Infinite x Infinite x Nothing
According to many mainstream scientists an infinite universe comes from infinite parallel multiverses, that are
born each moment in time. All this comes from nothing.
While infinite is mathematically interesting, I rather look at the origin of stars and galaxies. And the mainstream models (gravity only) seem totally wrong.
If we know better how the stars and the galaxies formed, we can get a better picture of the origin of the universe.
According to the electric universe theory, which is based on plasma cosmology, strong electric currents are responsible for forming stars and structures in a galaxy. Gravity is still present, but is not the only force in the universe. The strong currents come possibly from nuclear reactions. The strong currents are birkeland currents, called fluxlines by the nasa after rediscovering them.
Plasma is the universal substance that is everywhere. The atoms and electrons are usually separated in plasma, to a certain degree. Plasma itself is not visible unless it reaches high temperatures. This is "dark mode" plasma and may be abundant in the galaxies.
Cold sparse plasma is even able to capture photons and emit them at lower frequencies. This plasma is all around the universe. It causes much light to be red-shifted, depending on the distance. This has been measured in laboratories. And also depending on the temperature of the plasma. I suspect that more free electrons give larger redshifts. See also: http://www.plasmaredshift.com
Additionally some Halton Arp has found that near large galaxies, there are large stars that appear to be more redshifted than according to their distance. So these stars are much nearer and much less energetic. This has caused a lot of resistance from the mainstream community that depended on these stars to be far away.
So if you want to more about plasma cosmology you will encounter some controversies around the redshift and the expansion of the universe. There may be no expansion at all.
Plasma cosmology can give some explanations for the rotation and structure of galaxies. So there is no need for dark matter theories.
Because plasma is very electrically active, the plasma can form structures that emit very energetic light. The frequency of the light depends on the voltage that electrons cross when they move. Our x-ray machines work on such a principle.
So plasma cosmology can explain the existence of very high energetic light pulses with pretty common plasma structures. That means that the current explanations related to black holes, are probably invalid. It may even be that there are no black holes at all.
This seems to raise some questions on the validity of our theories of gravity. Einstein's gravity already has problems with singularities and quantum physics. So assuming that it is just an approximation is not a bad idea. If we actually listen to the people that claim to have spotted errors in Einstein's gravity, we can actually see some interesting conflicts.
Hammer and nails
Sadly many mainstream scientists do not want to believe the criticism that is presented to them. The scientists rather believe that this is only pseudo-science. They often repeat the same big mistake: they rely on the specialists that have been trained in one direction only. These specialists can still be wrong, especially if many new things are found. The specialists will try to hold on to their old theories. Their predictions will be more and more away from actual observations, just like we currently see in astronomy. If you have been working with a hammer all your life, everything looks like a nail.
The beginning of the universe
So according to plasma cosmology, the universe is not expanding. At least not as much. And it may be much much older than most scientists believe. So if there was a beginning, we can only observe it from the structures that we see.
( There is no real theory on how it started)
Maybe everything came from vacuum where energy-fluctuations created protons and electrons. No need to create space/time and more paradoxes. We don't even need to change our current physics to make this theory work. There are still things to discover, though.