Discussion of the Forces
The electrostatic force in the Aether Physics Model is the same as the static electromagnetic force in
the Standard Model. In the Aether Physics Model, the electrostatic charge shows specifically to have
spherical angle and one spin. Although the charges do not have inherent associated length, their
distributed nature allows for distributed existence on surfaces. A positive and negative electrostatic
charge resides separately in each half of the Aether unit, creating the Aether electrostatic dipole.
In addition to an electrostatic dipole, the Aether unit also has four spin positions; one each for the
electron, antiproton, proton, and positron. When primary angular momentum inhabits any of the spin
positions, the angular momentum interacts with the conductance of the Aether to produce
electromagnetic charge. The electromagnetic charge has tubular loxodrome geometry in five
dimensions of space-resonance (three dimensions of length and two dimensions of frequency). The two
dimensions of frequency in space-resonance are the frequency of forward/backward time and the
frequency of right/left spin direction. To our four dimensional space-time perspective, the
electromagnetic charge has tubular cardioid geometry, which has surface area mathematically equivalent
to toroidal geometry. Since the angular momentum producing the electromagnetic charge only spins in
the forward direction of time and either the right or left spin direction, the electromagnetic charge also
has half spin. The electromagnetic charge produces north and south magnetic poles, creating the
magnetic dipole of the subatomic particle.
Compared to the scanned surface of the electromagnetic charge, the ligamen circulatus, which contains
the very small mass of the subatomic particle, appears orthogonal to the electromagnetic charge due to
its perpendicular motion.
The electromagnetic charge is the carrier of the strong force, which binds the subatomic particles in an
atomic nucleus. In the Aether Physics Model, quarks are not small particles composing protons and
neutrons, but rather quarks are the debris of broken subatomic particles as the Aether collapses and the
encapsulated angular momentum of the visible matter spills back to the sea of dark matter.
Due to the movements of the LC within the toroidal geometry of the subatomic particles, when two
protons or two neutrons bind together, their toroidal geometries shrink the major radius and expand the
minor radius, which results in spherical geometry. While the subatomic particle is in its free state, the
Aether unit force constant prevails over the toroidal geometry, but as two subatomic particles bind, the
geometry shifts to spherical, and the Coulomb constant prevails as the force mediator constant.
Therefore, the strong force can appear to have variable strength during the binding and unbinding
In the APM, the neutron quantifies as a bound electron and proton, which has captured dark matter
between the bound strong charges. The captured angular momentum contributes to the total angular
momentum of the neutron while it is bound. When the electron and proton bind in a neutron, their north
magnetic poles are facing each other, thus there is magnetic repulsion fighting against electrostatic
attraction. The magnetic moments of the electron and proton in a neutron cause the distance between
the electron and proton to vary in length, as well as the angle between strong charges to vary. When the
two magnetic moments synchronize such that the electron and proton push against each other with
maximum effect, the distances between the electron and proton separate far enough for the electrostatic
bond to break. The ratio of the electrostatic charge to electromagnetic charge is thus the so-called weak
force, or weak interaction. The relative strength of the force between the electrostatic and
electromagnetic charges will vary depending upon distance, charge angles, and charge geometry; hence,
the weak interaction will have a great range of values, depending on the conditions.