Lloyd wrote:I think you say that white dwarfs are not actually spherical stars, but are toroidal exotics. Do you think all of the exotics are about the same?
They're all the same in the sense that they're all toroidal plasmoids, as opposed to spherical stars (which is my model for main sequence stars). While the exotics have overlapping property sets, they're not identical.
Lloyd wrote:I think you say that exotics have bipolar jets. I don't readily see jets mentioned with white dwarfs online.
Here's somebody who seems to think that white dwarfs can also be pulsars, complete with bipolar jets:
Lloyd wrote:Do your papers explain why you think white dwarfs are exotics?
The extremely powerful magnetic fields (i.e., millions of gauss) just aren't possible in a spherical model -- the centrifugal force wouldn't allow it. But in a toroid, with a major radius like that of Pluto's orbit around the Sun, with relativistic particle velocities, you get extreme magnetic fields, without such enormous centrifugal forces. Then, of course, the thing that keeps the star organized has to be the magnetic fields themselves (i.e., the magnetic pinch in the toroid's annulus).
Lloyd wrote:Do you think exotics cover a wide range of sizes? What might be the upper and lower limits of their sizes?
I don't have anything for a size limit on "natural tokamaks". For spherical stars, I consider the limit to be 1.4 solar masses, above which the pressure would initiate a runaway thermonuclear explosion that would annihilate the star. But toroidal plasmoids don't have this problem.
Lloyd wrote:Do you think knowing their distances and magnetic field strengths might be able to determine their diameters?
No, the magnetic fields strengths are a function of the angular velocity.
Lloyd wrote:Scientists seem to find metals around some white dwarfs and assume that they are planets or planetary or cometary debris orbiting white dwarfs.
The metals are fusion by-products, and have been found around other exotics, such as quasars. While high energy particles ejected toward the center of the toroid can end up getting collimated into bipolar jets streaming away from the star, particles ejected on the equatorial plane undergo magnetic braking that will result in an accumulation. The mainstream considers these metal belts around stars to be part of the "accretion discs" that formed the stars, but I consider them to be "excretion discs" that were formed by the star.
Lloyd wrote:Do you think normal planets can form from the same or nearby filaments that form white dwarfs?
I don't see why not.
Lloyd wrote:Do you think white dwarfs could be as small as the Earth and have the mass of the Sun?
No. The size estimates come from the mainstream's attempt to come up with force that can oppose the centrifugal force of the extreme angular velocity. So of course they use gravity, but to get a gravity field up to the task, they need extremely compact matter -- so compact that it violates atomic theory. But the "natural tokamak" model doesn't need to do this.
Lloyd wrote:Would rocky material falling into a white dwarf produce x-rays?
In the standard model, impacts don't generate x-rays, so for white dwarfs, they have to invoke mysterious processes. But counterstreaming charged particles in a toroidal plasmoid would certainly produce x-rays, and just about everything else.