If by no other means, the Sun will cool down simply because it is radiating energy, in the form of photons, and if the Conservation of Energy still holds, the Sun is losing energy, and get cooler in the process.Lloyd wrote:Cooling Sun
Charles, in your previous post above, you said if the Sun doesn't lose mass it will merely get cooler with time. How would it cool down?
As it cools, plasma becomes less capable of maintaining charge separations, and the +ions get neutralized by free electrons. With no net charge, the particles are no longer subject to compression due to electric fields in my model. This means that their density will obey just the Ideal Gas Laws, which prescribe a thinner atmosphere. As the atmosphere thins out, the gravity field gets weaker. This means less pressure on the underlying supercritical hydrogen that is producing the black-body radiation. At a lower pressure, supercritical hydrogen produces a lower frequency black-body spectrum -- it gets redder.Lloyd wrote:What would happen to the outer layers as it cooled down?
All in all, this sounds like the recipe for a "red giant", though I'm not sure how much of a "giant" it would actually be, and the mechanisms are very different from those in the mainstream model. Most significantly, I don't think that old main sequence stars undergo catastrophic end-of-life processes -- I think that they just keep getting cooler, and eventually just freeze over. So there, I'm in agreement with Jeffrey. I think that a lot of the stars that have been identified as red giants are not destined to become main sequence stars at all -- these are the formative stages of exotic stars, complete with supernovae and their "degenerate" remnants such as pulsars and white dwarfs.
I agree that the filaments are there, and that they form stars. I also agree that the filaments are organized by magnetic pinches.Lloyd wrote:Electric Circuits in Space
Here is my preliminary evaluation of the latest TPOD, Star Wires.
y=Yes. m=Maybe. p=Probable. u=Unlikely. n=No. q=Author'sQuestion. x=Extraneous, A=VeryImportant
I'm copying here only the statements that I labeled "A" for VeryImportant. Would you like to comment on them and give your evaluation of these statements?
u,A<5) According to a recent press release, astronomers working with data provided by Herschel found evidence for electric circuits in space, although that is not how consensus astronomers label their observations.
p<6) They identified “… an intricate pattern of filaments dotted with a few compact, bright cores: the seeds of future stars.”
u,A<7) Filaments of electric charge can flow in closed circuits through plasma.
u,A<21) Electromagnetism “pinches” those channels, otherwise known as Birkeland currents, into filaments that tend to attract each other in pairs.
u,A<26) There are power-consuming loads in those circuits converting electrical energy into rotational energy. They are known as galaxies.
u,A<29) In an Electric Universe, large-scale plasma discharges form coherent filaments that exhibit electrodynamic behavior.
u,A<32) When plasma moves through a cloud of dust and gas, some of the neutral molecules in the cloud are ionized, initiating electric fields, and thereby creating magnetic fields that tend to align and constrict the charge flow.
m,A<33) Since Birkeland currents are electromagnetic, they isolate regions of opposite charge and prevent them from neutralizing.
I disagree that it's an electric current flowing through the plasma that organizes the plasma. The disagreement is on several levels. First, no plausible electromotive force has been identified. Second, electric currents don't compress matter -- rather, they evacuate it. Ohmic heating causes the plasma to expand, making it thinner. And thinner plasma is a better conductor. Thus more current flows, meaning more ohmic heating, and even more thinning. So it's a runaway process, that eventually will result in a discharge channel that has absolutely nothing at all in it except for the free electrons zipping through at 99% of the speed of light. And you can't build a star out of nothing but free electrons. Third, if you could build stars like that, stars would be very different -- instead of being low velocity spherical objects, they'd be very long, very thin objects, moving very fast, and I don't know where you'd put the planets around such things, so that people could debate the nature of stars.
Rather, the filaments implode into stars without any help from any sort of external current. There is an electrostatic attraction within the filament itself that gets it to implode. Once moving, the ionized matter within the filament starts generating magnetic fields, which further organize the matter within the filament. Thus electric currents don't cause filaments -- the filaments are the electric currents. And the electromotive force is entirely within the filament, where unbound opposite charges attract each other, creating a body force that gets the filament to implode.